LORENZO PAOLO INGRASSIA

Pubblicazioni

LORENZO PAOLO INGRASSIA

 

14 pubblicazioni classificate nel seguente modo:

Nr. doc. Classificazioni
12 1 Contributo su Rivista
1 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
1 8 Tesi di dottorato
Anno
Risorse
2021
Monitoring the evolution of the structural properties of warm recycled pavements with Falling Weight Deflectometer and laboratory tests
ROAD MATERIALS AND PAVEMENT DESIGN
Autore/i: Ingrassia, Lorenzo Paolo; Cardone, Fabrizio; Ferrotti, Gilda; Canestrari, Francesco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In pavement engineering, the use of warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies can ensure important environmental and technical benefits. However, several uncertainties about WMA still exist, such as long-term field performance and full compatibility with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) or polymer modified bitumen (PMB). In this regard, a full-scale trial section (including three test fields with warm recycled mixtures prepared with different WMA chemical additives and a reference test field with hot recycled mixtures, all containing PMB) was constructed along an Italian motorway and monitored for several years of service life. The evolution of the structural properties was assessed with in-situ Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) tests and laboratory tests on extracted cores, both immediately after the construction of the trial section and after more than three years under actual traffic loading. It was found that the reduced working temperatures adopted for theWMAmixes (40°C lower than hot mix asphalt (HMA)) did not penalise the workability and the stiffness immediately after the trial section construction, whereas theHMAmixture experienced higher structural damage (likely due to more severe aging) during the in-service life. The WMA mixes exhibited better stiffness homogeneity and, overall, superior performance and potentially longer service life with respect to the referenceHMA mixture.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/290821 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Advanced experimental characterization of bituminous binders extended with renewable materials in asphalt pavements
Autore/i: Ingrassia, Lorenzo Paolo
Editore: Università Politecnica delle Marche
Classificazione: 8 Tesi di dottorato
Abstract: Le attività umane stanno progressivamente portando all'esaurimento delle risorse (limitate) del nostro pianeta e all'alterazione irreversibile degli ecosistemi, mettendo a rischio la qualità della vita delle generazioni future. Per questo motivo, mettere in pratica i principi della sostenibilità e dell'economia circolare, finalizzati – tra le altre cose – a minimizzare il consumo di risorse ed energia, i rifiuti e le emissioni, è diventato un tema cruciale nel mondo di oggi. Di conseguenza, il settore delle costruzioni è alla ricerca di soluzioni in grado di promuovere la sostenibilità e l'economia circolare senza penalizzare le prestazioni e la durabilità dei materiali da costruzione e delle infrastrutture, compresa l'adozione di materiali innovativi con ridotto impatto ambientale. A tal proposito, la nuova sfida nell'ingegneria dei materiali stradali è lo sviluppo e l'utilizzo dei cosiddetti “bio-leganti”, ovvero leganti in cui il bitume (che si ottiene dal petrolio) viene parzialmente sostituito con bio-materiali (soprattutto bio-oli) derivanti da residui o sottoprodotti da fonti rinnovabili (es. scarti del legno, biomasse vegetali non commestibili, letame animale, ecc.). Tuttavia, sebbene l'uso di bio-leganti nelle pavimentazioni stradali possa comportare significativi benefici ambientali, la conoscenza di questi materiali è ancora limitata, soprattutto in termini di prestazioni e durabilità. In questo contesto, questo progetto di dottorato (co-finanziato dall'azienda petrolchimica svedese Nynas AB) si è incentrato sulla caratterizzazione sistematica di laboratorio di bio-leganti ottenuti sostituendo parzialmente un bitume convenzionale con un bio-olio che è un residuo generato nella lavorazione di un sottoprodotto delle industrie della pasta di legno e della carta. Le prestazioni e la durabilità sono state valutate investigando diverse proprietà dei bio-leganti, tra cui la chimica, la morfologia, la reologia, la suscettività all'invecchiamento, l’adesione con aggregati lapidei, la suscettività all'acqua ed aspetti legati al riciclaggio. Nel progetto è stata inclusa anche la caratterizzazione delle prestazioni delle risultanti bio-miscele. I risultati ottenuti sono molto promettenti e suggeriscono che i bio-leganti possono essere considerati una valida alternativa ai tradizionali leganti bituminosi con potenziali benefici anche in termini di prestazioni e durabilità.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/289509 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
A review of top-down cracking in asphalt pavements: Causes, models, experimental tools and future challenges
JOURNAL OF TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
Autore/i: Canestrari, F.; Ingrassia, L. P.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In the last decades, a new type of distress has been observed more and more frequently on asphalt pavements. This distress, ascribable to fatigue failure, has been named top-down cracking (TDC) because it consists in longitudinal cracks that initiate on the pavement surface and then propagate downwards. A series of surveys recently carried out on Italian motorways highlighted that TDC can affect up to 20%–30% of the slow traffic lane. Therefore, in order to achieve a better understanding of such distress, this paper reviews causes, models and experimental tools and highlights future challenges for TDC. The literature review indicates that TDC can evolve on the pavement surface in three stages (i.e., single crack, sister cracks, alligator cracking) and, below a certain depth, the cracks can form angles of 20°–40° with respect to the vertical plane. Even though multiple factors contribute to TDC development, thick pavements are more likely to fail due to TDC induced by tire-pavement contact stresses, especially in the presence of open-graded friction courses (OGFCs). Moreover, in literature there are several TDC models based on mechanics (e.g., fracture mechanics or continuum damage mechanics) which allow a rigorous study of crack initiation and propagation. Future challenges include the identification of a reliable and feasible test method, among those proposed in literature, to study the TDC performance of asphalt mixtures and the implementation of TDC in pavement management systems (PMSs) through the definition of criteria for TDC recognition in the field as well as for the rehabilitation depth evaluation. Finally, more research is needed for open-graded asphalt mixtures, which present critical drawbacks in terms of TDC.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/287661 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Top-down cracking in Italian motorway pavements: A case study
CASE STUDIES IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
Autore/i: Ingrassia, L. P.; Spinelli, P.; Paoloni, G.; Canestrari, F.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Top-down cracking (TDC) is a distress affecting asphalt pavements and consists of longitudinal cracks that initiate on the pavement surface and propagate downwards. In general, TDC is more critical in the case of thick pavements with open-graded friction course (OGFC), which are the typical characteristics of Italian motorway pavements. Recent surveys showed the presence of many longitudinal cracks potentially ascribable to TDC on Italian motorways. Within this context, this study has two main objectives: 1) to define reliable identification criteria allowing to distinguish between TDC and the other types of longitudinal cracks observed and 2) based on the developed criteria, to quantify TDC in Italian motorway pavements. In this regard, a 200 km long trial network (400 km considering both directions) was studied, taking into account the effect of several variables (e.g. geometric characteristics, traffic level, wearing layer type and climate). For this purpose, images of the trial network acquired during pavement monitoring were visually analysed and some control cores were taken. Specific criteria (which can be used in a pavement management system, PMS) were developed to distinguish between the main types of longitudinal cracks observed on the trial network, i.e. TDC, cracks due to heavy vehicles tire blowout and construction joints, based on their geometric features on the pavement surface. It was found that TDC can affect up to 20–30 % of the slow traffic lane. Specifically, the highest TDC concentrations were observed for high traffic levels and OGFC, whereas TDC was absent in the case of a dense-graded wearing layer. Finally, surprisingly the concentration of tire blowout cracks was even higher than TDC. This study provides evidence on the fact that, for thick pavements with OGFC, TDC has to be considered a priority problem to be addressed in both pavement design and maintenance.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/287662 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Evaluation of graphite nanoplatelets influence on the lubrication properties of asphalt binders
MATERIALS
Autore/i: Yan, T.; Ingrassia, L. P.; Kumar, R.; Turos, M.; Canestrari, F.; Lu, X.; Marasteanu, M.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: With the major advance in nanotechnology, there has been an emerging interest in applying nanoscale materials to asphalt pavement materials. Among them, considerable interest has been directed to carbon-based nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs). Recent studies have proven that the addition of small percentages of GNPs could significantly reduce the compaction effort required to densify HMA. Viscosity measurements showed, however, that the addition of GNPs increased the viscosity of the binder. This observation pointed towards the presence of a different mechanism responsible for the reduction of compaction effort. A new test method used for lubricants and based on tribology has been recently proposed in order to characterize the lubricating behaviour of asphalt binders. In this study, the tribological characterization of an asphalt binder modified with GNPs was performed. A novel approach in which aggregate surface microtexture was simulated using rough surfaces of the testing fixtures, shows that indeed, the addition of GNPs lowers the friction coefficient and therefore, enhances the lubrication properties of the binder when mixed with mineral aggregates.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276998 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Chemical, morphological and rheological characterization of bitumen partially replaced with wood bio-oil: Towards more sustainable materials in road pavements
JOURNAL OF TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
Autore/i: Ingrassia, L. P.; Lu, X.; Ferrotti, G.; Canestrari, F.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Nowadays, sustainability and circular economy are two principles to be pursued in all fields. In road pavement engineering, they can be put into practice through the partial substitution of bitumen with industrial residues and by-products deriving from renewable materials. Within this framework, this paper presents an extensive investigation of the chemical, morphological and rheological properties of bio-binders obtained by mixing a conventional 50/70 bitumen with different percentages by weight (0, 5%, 10% and 15%) of a renewable bio-oil, generated as a residue in the processing of wood into pulp and paper. Results show that overall the bio-oil provides a softening effect, which, in terms of performance, leads to an improvement of the low-temperature behaviour and fatigue resistance with respect to the control bitumen, in spite of an increased tendency to permanent deformation. Although no chemical reaction appears to occur after blending, the peculiarities of the bio-oil affect the chemistry of the resulting bio-binders, whereas no phase separation is observed from the microscopic analysis. In addition, a Newtonian behaviour, an unchanged temperature susceptibility and a good fitting of 1S2P1D model to the rheological data are found, regardless of the bio-oil percentage considered. These promising outcomes suggest that such bio-binders can be favourably employed for several applications in road pavements.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276995 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Effect of geocomposite reinforcement on the performance of thin asphalt pavements: Accelerated pavement testing and laboratory analysis
CASE STUDIES IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
Autore/i: Ingrassia, L. P.; Virgili, A.; Canestrari, F.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The objective of this study is to assess the effect of geocomposite reinforcement on fatigue cracking, reflective cracking and permanent deformation accumulation of thin asphalt pavements. For this purpose, a full-scale trial section was constructed with different interfaces: unreinforced (reference) and reinforced with three types of geocomposites, formed by the combination of a bituminous membrane with a fabric or grid. The experimental program included accelerated pavement testing (APT) carried out by means of Fast Falling Weight Deflectometer (FastFWD) and laboratory tests (three point bending tests) on samples taken from the trial section. After APT, significant permanent deflections were observed, likely due to the plastic yielding of the unbound layers. Nevertheless, all the geocomposites improved the permanent deformation resistance as compared to the unreinforced pavement by reducing the vertical strain at the top of the subgrade. Moreover, the geocomposites increased the energy necessary for the crack propagation by three to eight times with respect to the unreinforced pavement. Overall, these findings indicate that the use of geocomposites can extend the service life of thin asphalt pavements in terms of both cracking and permanent deformation accumulation.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276997 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Investigating the “circular propensity” of road bio-binders: Effectiveness in hot recycling of reclaimed asphalt and recyclability potential
JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION
Autore/i: Ingrassia, L. P.; Lu, X.; Ferrotti, G.; Conti, C.; Canestrari, F.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In pavement engineering, the use of bio-binders and reclaimed asphalt (RA) promotes the principles of sustainability and circular economy, without penalizing or even improving the performance. In this regard, this study focuses on the “circular propensity” of bio-binders obtained by partially replacing a conventional bitumen with a bio-oil generated as a residue by the wood and paper industries. Specifically, the objectives are: 1) to assess the effectiveness of bio-binders in the hot recycling of traditional RA and 2) to evaluate, in a long-term perspective, their recyclability potential. For this purpose, two severely aged binders (one “RAP” binder recovered from reclaimed asphalt and one laboratory-produced “Bio-RAP” binder) and two fresh binders (one bio-binder and one bitumen) are blended to reproduce four hot recycled binders. The mechanical behaviour and the aging susceptibility of these blends are compared to those of a control virgin bitumen. The experimental investigation includes conventional tests, rheological testing and modelling (modified CAM model) as well as chemical analysis (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The main results indicate that the hot recycling of reclaimed bio-asphalt (bio-RA) may lead to mixtures less susceptible to cracking as compared to the recycling of conventional RA, as well as the use of bio-binders in the hot recycling of conventional RA may be beneficial in terms of cracking. Even though the blends with the bio-binder are characterized by a lower aging rate, the permanent deformation behaviour of all the recycled blends studied is comparable in unaged and short-term aged conditions, i.e. the circumstances under which rutting is usually a concern. Finally, the recycled blends show significantly lower aging susceptibility than the control bitumen. Overall, these results suggest that the bio-binders studied are effective in the hot recycling of RA and 100% recyclable, and their use in asphalt pavements can lead to significant technical and environmental benefits.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276996 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Renewable materials in bituminous binders and mixtures: speculative pretext or reliable opportunity?
RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING
Autore/i: Ingrassia, L. P.; Lu, X.; Ferrotti, G.; Canestrari, F.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Bitumen is the most employed binder in road pavements and derives from petroleum, which is a non-renewable resource that is progressively depleting. Therefore, the current challenge for road industry is to use renewable materials (i.e. bio-materials not subjected to depletion) in partial replacement of bitumen, thus reducing carbon footprint and making the sector less dependent on petroleum-based products. Specifically, the trend is to utilize bio-materials that are obtained as by-products from industrial processes or as wastes from the everyday life, avoiding their disposal in landfills, in accordance with the principles of sustainability and circular economy. Thus, research in this field is very promising and attractive nowadays. However, in order to understand whether the application of renewable materials represents a reliable and viable solution or just a speculative pretext for research, a rigorous scientific approach must be adopted. For this purpose, the paper provides an overview of the use of renewable materials in bituminous binders and mixtures, focusing on the necessary requirements that they should meet, their effects on performance, and health, safety and environment aspects. Based on the analysis of available literature, a comprehensive experimental approach for evaluating bio-materials in bituminous applications is also proposed.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/263622 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Tribological characterization of graphene nano-platelet (GNP) bituminous binders
Airfield and Highway Pavements 2019: Innovation and Sustainability in Highway and Airfield Pavement Technology - Selected Papers from the International Airfield and Highway Pavements Conference 2019
Autore/i: Ingrassia, L. P.; Lu, X.; Marasteanu, M.; Canestrari, F.
Editore: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: According to recent research, the addition of graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) to bitumen can lead to a considerable improvement of the compactability of bituminous mixtures, without reducing the viscosity of the binder, meaning that other mechanisms are responsible for this phenomenon. In this regard, the present study focuses on the characterization of the lubricating behaviour of GNP binders obtained by adding 3% and 6% GNPs to a plain PG 58-28 bitumen, through a novel tribological approach recently proposed in literature. In addition, the experimental program is completed by viscosity tests. Results show that GNP addition leads to an increase in both viscosity and friction, which in general is greater for higher GNP contents, for all testing temperatures. A good correlation between viscosity and minimum friction exists in the elasto-hydrodynamic regime of lubrication, whereas the results obtained in the boundary and mixed regimes may be significantly affected by the testing conditions considered. Specifically, the use of different substrates is suggested for future work, in order to achieve a better understanding of the mechanisms that govern the compaction behaviour of bituminous mixtures.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/277007 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Chemical and rheological investigation on the short- and long-term aging properties of bio-binders for road pavements
CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
Autore/i: Ingrassia, L. P.; Lu, X.; Ferrotti, G.; Canestrari, F.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In recent years, due to growing environmental concerns, sustainability and circular economy have become two issues of crucial importance. In road engineering, in order to pursue such principles, one of the main current trends is to employ industrial residues and by-products deriving from renewable materials in partial substitution of petroleum-based bitumen. However, uncertainty on the durability and long-term performance of such materials still exists. In this regard, this paper focuses on the short- and long-term aging properties of bio-binders obtained by partially replacing a 50/70 bitumen with different percentages of a renewable bio-oil generated as a by-product by the wood and paper industries. The experimental investigation carried out includes conventional tests, chemical analyses as well as rheological testing and modelling with 2S2P1D model. Conventional bitumens were also tested for comparison purposes. The main chemical results indicate that, despite a small amount of additional oxidized compounds related to esters, the bio-oil addition significantly inhibits the formation of carbonyl compounds and reduces the aromaticity of the binders. In terms of performance-related properties, the permanent deformation resistance and the fatigue resistance of these bio-binders are generally comparable to those of traditional bitumens having similar penetration grade, without any specific drawback. Moreover, a linear material-dependent relationship was found between chemical and rheological changes induced by aging as well as the chemical and rheological parameters most strictly related to the binders’ oxidation were identified and considered as aging indicators. Based on the evolution of these parameters, the bio-binders investigated in this study may have comparable or even better aging resistance with respect to conventional bitumens with similar penetration grade. Therefore, such bio-binders can be considered an effective sustainable alternative to traditional bituminous binders.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276994 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Experimental investigation on the bond strength between sustainable road bio-binders and aggregate substrates
MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES
Autore/i: INGRASSIA, LORENZO PAOLO; CARDONE, Fabrizio; CANESTRARI, Francesco; Lu, Xiaohu
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Interest is growing on the application of bio-binders in road pavements. However, currently there is a lack of data concerning the adhesion between bio-binders and aggregates, which is a crucial aspect to ensure adequate performance and durability of bituminous mixtures, especially in the presence of water. In this regard, the present investigation focuses on the evaluation of the binder bond strength (BBS) between bio-binders, characterized by different percentages of a renewable wood bio-oil and different aging levels, and aggregate substrates (limestone and porphyry), in dry and wet conditions. Preliminarily, the binders were subjected to viscosity tests to determine BBS application temperatures. The main results show that the bio-binders studied exhibit a good adhesion with limestone both in dry and wet conditions as well as with porphyry in dry conditions, resulting in cohesive failures. For porphyry substrate, after wet conditioning, a progressive transition from adhesive to cohesive failures is observed as the bio-oil content increases, indicating that the bio-oil might improve the adhesion between bitumen and siliceous aggregates. Based on previous findings on the chemical characteristics of the bio-binders, the contribution of the bio-oil to the adhesion may be attributed to its high content of esters. Overall, the results suggest that the use of bio-binders in road pavements could lead to significant benefits in terms of performance and resistance to moisture damage.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/267828 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Tribological characterization of bituminous binders with Warm Mix Asphalt additives
CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
Autore/i: Ingrassia, L. P.; Lu, X.; Canestrari, F.; Ferrotti, G.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technologies allow reducing production, laying and compaction temperatures of bituminous mixtures, leading to relevant environmental and technical benefits. According to recent studies, some WMA additives lead to this temperature reduction by potentially improving the lubricating properties (i.e. the tribological behaviour) of the bituminous binder. In this study, the effect of a chemical and a wax additive on the tribological behaviour of two base bituminous binders was investigated, by considering different percentages of additive. All the binders were preliminarily characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and viscosity analysis. After optimizing the test procedure, tribological tests were carried out with a ball-on-three-plates fixture at 85 °C and 120 °C. A statistical analysis was also performed on the tribological results to evaluate the statistical significance of the differences between the binders. Results showed that the additives might alter the oxidative state of the binder, the chemical additive is able to modify the tribological behaviour of the binder, the wax additive acts solely on the viscosity and the effect of the additive depends on the chemical composition of the base binder. Moreover, a correlation between the minimum friction and the viscosity was found.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/263628 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
State of the art of tribological tests for bituminous binders
CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
Autore/i: CANESTRARI, Francesco; INGRASSIA, LORENZO PAOLO; FERROTTI, Gilda; Lu, Xiaohu
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Kinetic friction is a physical phenomenon which originates when two or more bodies are in contact and in relative motion, and causes energy consumption and wear. Lubricants are widely used in many fields to reduce kinetic friction and their behaviour is usually characterized through appropriate tribological tests. In fact, the science of tribology (from the Greek word “tribo” that means to rub and the Latin word “logia” that means study) investigates interactions between surfaces in relative motion. In the field of road materials, during asphalt mixing and compaction, bitumen acts similarly to lubricants, reducing friction between aggregates, and its lubricating properties significantly affect the energy required. According to recent studies, some Warm Mix Asphalt additives are able to reduce production and compaction temperatures (and therefore energy consumption) of asphalt mixtures by potentially improving the lubricating behaviour of the binder. Thus, tribological tests have recently been introduced in the investigation of bituminous binders to characterize their lubricating properties. This paper aims at providing the state of the art of tribological tests currently employed for the study of bituminous binders, as well as useful suggestions for improving these procedures. Since the introduction of such tests in the field of road materials is quite recent, an overview on tribology and tribological tests on common lubricants is presented, with the aim to highlight the main aspects to take into account when applying the tribological characterization of bituminous binders.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/254772 Collegamento a IRIS




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