Gabriele BERNARDINI

Pubblicazioni

Gabriele BERNARDINI

 

105 pubblicazioni classificate nel seguente modo:

Nr. doc. Classificazioni
53 1 Contributo su Rivista
33 2 Contributo in Volume
15 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
2 3 Libro
1 7 Curatele
1 8 Tesi di dottorato
Anno
Risorse
Towards a Multi-risk Assessment of Open Spaces and Its Users: A Rapid Survey Form to Collect and Manage Risk Factors
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
Autore/i: Angelosanti, M.; Bernabei, L.; Russo, M.; D'Amico, A.; Cantatore, E.; Bernardini, G.; Fatiguso, F.; Salvalai, G.; Mochi, G.; Quagliarini, E.; Curra, E.
Editore: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: The Built Environment (BE) with its users is increasingly prone to SUdden-Onset Disasters (SUODs), such as earthquakes and terrorist attacks, and SLow-Onset Disasters (SLODs), such as those related to pollutions and heatwaves. In this regard, historical centers represent vulnerable contexts due to their morphological complexity, construction peculiarities, and user-related characteristics. Therefore, risk assessment studies emphasize the importance of characterizing the BE from a holistic perspective to identify risk factors that interfere with disaster response. In particular, Open Spaces (OSs) (e.g., streets, squares) play a key role in increasing the overall BE resilience as elements that ensure the safety of BE users in emergency phases. This research is aimed at providing a quick OSs survey form to collect and manage the main risk factors according to a multi-risk approach. The form focuses on the critical users-BE interactions due to the OSs modifications during disasters and has been applied to 8 case studies in Italian historical city centers. Results show how the form can assess the OSs complexity and trace the main morphological, constructive, use-related, and context risk factors affecting the safety of OSs and their users. Promoted in the context of the Italian research project (PRIN) BE S2ECURe, the research succeeds in defining a quick methodology for risk factors collection, which can also support planners and local administrations in promoting effective mitigation strategies.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/292669 Collegamento a IRIS

Leaving or Sheltering? a Simulation-Based Comparison of Flood Evacuation Strategies in Urban Built Environments
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
Autore/i: Quagliarini, E.; Romano, G.; Bernardini, G.; D'Orazio, M.
Editore: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: When sudden-onset disasters occur in the urban Built Environment (BE), people must quickly leave the dangerous areas to reach safety. Floods in urban BEs surely represent a critical emergency, especially considering users who cannot evacuate upstairs, such as those placed outdoor. Management strategies focused on the evacuation planning could increase the users’ safety in a flexible but effective manner. This study compares two evacuation strategies in typological BEs through a simulation-based methodology based on the evacuation process analysis. The first strategy considers that users leave the BE, thus moving away from the source of danger flood. The second strategy adopts gathering areas positioned where the risk is lower, thus sheltering-in-place for the BE users. These strategies are tested considering fluvial flood conditions in four typological BEs, characterized by different layout in terms of streets and squares positions. The simulation-based methodology represents pedestrian evacuation under the two considered strategies depending on the hydrodynamic conditions of the BEs. Comparisons between evacuation time, flows, path length and the users’ risk depending on floodwater conditions (in terms of depth and speed) are provided. Results show that sheltering strategies can increase the users’ safety in each typological BEs, and mainly in case of the proximity between the square and the river. For instance, the users’ risk is generally reduced up to − 70%. These findings suggest that effective interventions should be designed to support the users toward “sheltering” areas, by increasing they awareness on the evacuation plan, and implementing wayfinding signs and raised platforms in the BE.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/292670 Collegamento a IRIS

Merging Heat Stress Hazard and Crowding Features to Frame Risk Scenarios Within the Urban Built Environment
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
Autore/i: Cadena, J. D. B.; Salvalai, G.; Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.
Editore: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Risk assessment for SLow Onset Disasters (SLODs) in the built environment combine the hazard features, and its effects on the built environment itself, with users’ exposure and vulnerability, including behavioral issues. Although different methods exist for identifying the main SLODs drivers and their trend over time and space, limited information is found to set up significant risk scenarios by effectively merging hazard and crowding’ features. Hence, this research is aimed at testing a methodology to create relevant risk scenarios for a single SLOD type, in the urban built environment. The work focuses on heat stress because of its growing incidence trend in urban areas. The methodology is applied to a neighborhood portion in Milan, Italy, which is a significant urban scenario for the considered SLOD. Through the application of quick and remote data collection methodologies, preliminary risk levels are traced over the daytime merging hazard and exposure, thus enabling a quick methodology application by practitioners. Results organize extreme and recurring risk scenarios considering relevant users’ types and behavioral patterns in respect to both the neighborhood space use and the heat stress arousal. Such scenarios can contribute to the definition of input conditions for simulation-based risk assessment.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/292671 Collegamento a IRIS

Flood Risk of Open Spaces: From Microscale Factors of Built Environment to Risk Reduction Strategies
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
Autore/i: Mannucci, Simona; Rosso, Federica; D'Amico, Alessandro; Bernardini, Gabriele; Morganti, Michele
Editore: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Urban Built Environment can be defined as a network of Open Spaces (including their infrastructures) and buildings, where users live and interact. In case of an emergency, the risk in the Built Environment highly depends on the characteristics of disastrous event, buildings and Open Spaces physical vulnerability, and on users’ behavioral patterns and emergency response. Open Spaces represent a fundamental element during the disaster and the immediate aftermath. Floods denote one of the most challenging disasters for Open Spaces safety. In fact, they influence the floodwater spreading in the urban layout, affecting the building damage and the emergency evacuation process. From a critical review of recent advancement in the field, this work addresses the role of Open Space factors in flood risk—considering the composing elements and their interactions—to pursue a microscale approach.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/292668 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Morphological Systems of Open Spaces in Built Environment Prone to Sudden-Onset Disasters
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
Autore/i: Russo, Martina; Angelosanti, Marco; Bernardini, Gabriele; Cantatore, Elena; D'Amico, Alessandro; Currà, Edoardo; Fatiguso, Fabio; Mochi, Giovanni; Quagliarini, Enrico
Editore: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Recent events have shown how the Built Environment (BE), defined as a network of buildings, infrastructures, and open spaces, and its users are more and more prone to disasters, showing very poor resilience. The chapter focuses on the state of the art concerning the relation between BE and SUdden-Onset Disasters (SUOD) considering risks and human behavior. Results concerning the characterization of BE prone to SUODs underline the primary importance of open spaces in the Built Environment, as elements to characterize in respect to the possible emergency phases and the behavior of the BEs users. Attention is given to the BE constituting the base elements for urban areas (i.e., compact historic city) because of the related risk-affecting specific conditions (i.e., crowding, the complexity of overall BEs form, built element features, BEs uses). Moving from different open spaces types classification, the chapter defines morphological classes of BE representative of the variables of urban systems that interact with the identified SUODs risks.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286263 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Risk Reduction Strategies against Terrorist Acts in Urban Built Environments: Towards Sustainable and Human-Centred Challenges
SUSTAINABILITY
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Fatiguso, Fabio; Lucesoli, Michele; Bernardini, Gabriele; Cantatore, Elena
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Terrorist impacts have been increasing over time in many countries, being one of the most significant threats for the Built Environment (BE), intended as a network of open spaces (streets, squares) and facing buildings, and their users. Such risk is affected by a combination of strategic functions and crowd conditions. This work traces, for the first time, the state-of-the-art consolidated Risk Mitigation and Reduction Strategies (RMRSs). Solid RMRS regulatory frameworks from all over the world are collected. The results show how classification criteria distinguish them by attack targets and typologies, effectiveness over time/space, and physical implementation versus management-based deployment. Nevertheless, these criteria seem to be too fragmented, failing in pursuing RMRSs selection in a holistic outlook. Thus, a new classification adopting the BE composing elements (physical elements, layout, access/surveillance systems, safety/security management) as key-factors is provided. Features, dependencies and coordination among them are discussed in a sustainability-based perspective, by showing how the main challenges for RMRSs’ design concern applicability, redundancy, and users’ emergency support. Safety/security management strategies have the overall highest sustainability level and play a pivotal role with respect to the other BE composing elements, which should be planned in reference to them. In addition, a human-centred approach (individuals’ interactions with BEs and RMRSs) will also be needed. These results will support efforts to include simulation-oriented approaches into RMRSs selection, effectiveness and feasibility analyses.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/287215 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Understanding Human Behaviors in Earthquakes to Improve Safety in Built Environment: A State of the Art on Sustainable and Validated Investigation Tools
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
Autore/i: Quagliarini, E.; Lucesoli, M.; Bernardini, G.
Editore: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: The design of resilient Built Environments (BEs) against disasters should consider human behaviors in emergency conditions as a key factor. The disaster impact on BE can lead people to be potentially exposed to additional risks because of “wrong” behaviors adoption. This aspect is mainly relevant for sudden-onset events, characterized by unpredictability and quick arising of effects. In this sense, earthquakes represent critical events. Although civil defense bodies provide behavioral guidelines to reduce the number of injuries and victims in case of such disaster, individuals generally seem to not follow such rules due to their interactions among them and with the BE. Studying and predicting behaviors in the first emergency phases (i.e., evacuation) represent the first step in developing risk-mitigating solutions and improving users’ preparedness. This work provides a literary review of sustainable technologies to this end, to detect if and how they could be considered reliable tools to inquire about human behaviors. Two main available and consolidated sources are analyzed. Videotapes of real-world events are traditionally used to develop evacuation model. Recent works introduced Virtual Reality (VR)-based activities to replicate earthquake conditions in different BEs (including stimuli like smokes, ground shaking), analyze individuals’ reactions in immersive drills, and provide a “learn-by-doing” approach to tested people. Anyway, most of these VR approaches shows simplifications of possible users’ choices. Verifications of real-world-VR environment differences in behaviors are also needed. These novel tools will sensibly speed up researches in terms of time and quality by reducing costs and ensuring replicability if this limitation will be effectively overcome.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286250 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Occupants’ Behavioral Analysis for the Optimization of Building Operation and Maintenance: A Case Study to Improve the Use of Elevators in a University Building
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Di Giuseppe, E.; D'Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Editore: Springer, Singapore
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: The impact of the users’ behavior on the building performance is largely recognized, especially considering most of common building operation and management (O&M) tasks. Predictions of human-building interactions are essential to improve building efficiency by decreasing wastes and costs connected to O&M while satisfying the comfort level required by the occupants. At this regard, building technological systems, which status depends on the users’ movement inside the buildings, like elevators, represent one of the critical spots, especially in high-density buildings. According to a “user-centered” approach, this paper moves toward the assessment of behavioral drivers which can influence the use of elevators in public buildings to define a probability use model useful to set specific maintenance policies. In situ evaluations are performed in a university building, where flows of people are highly dependent on the indoor activities scheduled, as lessons. A multinomial logit model for the probability of elevators’ use is built depending on factors such as: floors number, movement in group, direction (upwards, downwards). Users’ fruition patterns in the university building are detected using eye-tracking techniques and questionnaires. Results show how the elevators’ use probability increases when the number of floors to cross increases, also because of perceived movement comfort, while individuals’ attention is mainly affected by posters and signage systems placed along the way. The model could be implemented in building simulation models, to predict the elevators use during the time under different circumstances, hence to optimize related O&M measures.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286248 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Human stability during floods: Experimental tests on a physical model simulating human body
SAFETY SCIENCE
Autore/i: Postacchini, M.; Bernardini, G.; D'Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Urban floods are becoming more and more intense and frequent allover the world. Extreme events are the main triggering factors of such floods, and merit attention for what concerns the urban planning and emergency strategies. Numerical models aimed at investigating the optimal paths for evacuees escaping a flooded urban environment may be used by local authorities to properly understand how to improve people safety and mitigate the flood risk. Implementation of empirical laws in such models to describe the people stability in flooded areas is thus crucial to understand the behavior of evacuees and rescuers during emergency conditions. Laboratory experiments have been undertaken using a physical model representing a human body at quasi-natural scale, towed by an electrical engine in the water at rest. This represents a novel laboratory approach which exploits a non-inertial reference frame in motion with the model. The experimental results, obtained using different combinations of water depth and flow speed, have led to empirical laws which outline the stability conditions occurring when either the model front or the model back faces the flow, these respectively corresponding to Backward Toppling Instability (BTI) and Forward Toppling Instability (FTI). Such laws have been found through comparison with reference literature works, using various statistical methods. The FTI condition has been seen to largely improve the human stability compared to BTI, in contrast to the results of previous literature works, which stated an overall similarity between the results of the two toppling conditions. To better understand the role of the water flow during the different tests, hydraulic forces and moments have been measured. It has been seen that dynamic and static effects are comparable during high-speed conditions, especially due to a relevant fluid-model interaction and an increase of the water-surface level, while dynamic effects are negligible during low-speed conditions. The results of the present contribution can represent an important step forward for the numerical models applied to the framework of urban and emergency planning.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/287664 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Cognitive Buildings for Increasing Elderly Fire Safety in Public Buildings: Design and First Evaluation of a Low-Impact Dynamic Wayfinding System
Ambient Assisted Living. ForItAAL 2019
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Ciabattoni, Lucio; Quagliarini, Enrico; D’Orazio, Marco
Editore: Springer
Luogo di pubblicazione: Cham
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: The progressive population ageing increases the participation of autonomous Elderly to the community life and their presence in public buildings. Such complex spaces are generally characterized by high occupants’ density, with different users’ types (including elderly) that additionally own a scarce familiarity with the emergency layout. Emergency safety levels (i.e.: fire) are significantly affected by man-environment interactions, especially for the hosted autonomous Elderly. Here, they tend to choose well-known paths, while group behaviours can provoke overcrowding and, hence, an increasing of the evacuation time. Cognitive Buildings can solve this issue, because they can suggest to people how to behave in relation to the monitored surrounding conditions. This study proposes a Cognitive Wayfinding System (Co-WayS) to be applied in such scenarios, with a low impact level. Co-Ways is composed by: individuals’ badges for their wi-fi tracking; building components including wi-fi tracking system and electrically-illumined signs (to dynamically address correct paths to evacuees); central processing unit to solve a density-based guidance algorithm for sign activation. Co-WaysS addresses the egress paths depending on monitored queueing conditions. A first validation in a significant public building is performed through egress drills. When using Co-WayS, the evacuation time decreases (−28%) while correct path choices (+17%) and individuals’ sign confidence (+58%) increases, with respect to standard signage.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/289489 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
A probabilistic model to evaluate the effectiveness of main solutions to COVID-19 spreading in university buildings according to proximity and time-based consolidated criteria
BUILDING SIMULATION
Autore/i: D’Orazio, Marco; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: University buildings are one of the most relevant closed environments in which the COVID-19 event clearly pointed out stakeholders’ needs toward safety issues, especially because of the possibility of day-to-day presences of the same users (i.e. students, teachers) and overcrowding causing long-lasting contacts with possible “infectors”. While waiting for the vaccine, as for other public buildings, policy-makers’ measures to limit virus outbreaks combine individual’s strategies (facial masks), occupants’ capacity and access control. But, up to now, no easy-to-apply tools are available for assessing the punctual effectiveness of such measures. To fill this gap, this work proposes a quick and probabilistic simulation model based on consolidated proximity and exposure-time-based rules for virus transmission confirmed by international health organizations. The building occupancy is defined according to university scheduling, identifying the main “attraction areas” in the building (classrooms, break-areas). Scenarios are defined in terms of occupants’ densities and the above-mentioned mitigation strategies. The model is calibrated on experimental data and applied to a relevant university building. Results demonstrate the model capabilities. In particular, it underlines that if such strategies are not combined, the virus spreading can be limited by only using high protection respiratory devices (i.e. FFP3) by almost every occupant. On the contrary, the combination between access control and building capacity limitation can lead to the adoption of lighter protective devices (i.e. surgical masks), thus improving the feasibility, users’ comfort and favorable reception. Simplified rules to combine acceptable mask filters-occupants’ density are thus provided to help stakeholders in organizing users’ presences in the building during the pandemic.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/288226 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
How to create seismic risk scenarios in historic built environment using rapid data collection and managing
JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
Autore/i: Quagliarini, E.; Lucesoli, M.; Bernardini, G.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The Historic Built Environment (HBE) is constantly prone to natural disasters because of its complexity. Resilience-increasing strategies in such a context should both preserve the cultural heritage and make the hosted communities safe. Earthquakes represent critical disasters because of the interactions between HBE elements (i.e.: buildings, open spaces, urban paths) and its inhabitants. Thus, the practical development of emergency plans and related risk reduction strategies should consider the induced effects of the earthquake on the HBE and the spatiotemporal variation in the number of exposed people. This goal needs propaedeutic methods to define relevant scenarios in view of the possible characterization of risk-related factors at the HBE scale. To this aim, this contribution tries to arrange a first sustainable, holistic, easy-to-use, and replicable framework. The paper innovatively provides planners with a unique scheme to reach available data from reliable sources concerning seismic hazard, vulnerability and damage, and exposure (i.e. related to human lives quantification). Results on a case-study application (a typical Italian HBE) demonstrate the framework capabilities, by including the critical HBE damage-related conditions and crowding phenomena (in a multi-hazard perspective, based on the probable number and typologies of exposed individuals). Then, specific solutions can be advanced. The proposed holistic framework can be easily replicable and adaptable due to the possibility to update the employed tools as well as to replace them with other existing and validated ones, giving the same inquired parameters as results. The methodological framework could constitute an effective support for risk scenarios creation at the HBE scale to be used in risk-assessment and emergency plans actions (e.g. basing on typological analyses on buildings/urban tissue, and simulation-based studies including individuals' behaviours in emergency and evacuation) by guaranteeing rapid data collection activities.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/289062 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
How urban layout and pedestrian evacuation behaviours can influence flood risk assessment in riverine historic built environments
SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND SOCIETY
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Romano, Guido; Soldini, Luciano; Quagliarini, Enrico
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Riverine Historic Built Environments (HBEs) in urban centres are relevant scenarios for flood risk, due to the compact layout of their outdoor spaces, that are squares and streets, and their position in flood-prone areas. Differences in HBE layout can provide differences in flood risks, but excluding the response of exposed individuals can lead to risk underestimation or overestimation, as for other hazards. This work is a first attempt to compare how accounting or not pedestrian evacuation behaviours can affect flood risk assessment and emergency strategies evaluation. Parametric configurations of typical HBEs are provided on case-studies, and existing tools for hydrodynamic and pedestrian evacuation simulation are applied to them. Risk indexes for the whole HBE (macroscale) and each of its outdoor space (microscale) in it are provided. Results show how the risk indexes trends accounting or not pedestrian evacuation behaviours at the macroscale are similar, while differences at the microscale exist (about 15% in absolute terms). Concerning emergency strategies, sheltering seems to decrease the risk for the whole HBE up to 33% in comparison to leaving the flood-affected area. Results also support where/how to place gathering areas in the HBE.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/291492 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Terrorist acts and pedestrians’ behaviours: First insights on European contexts for evacuation modelling
SAFETY SCIENCE
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Europe has been subject to a significant increase in terrorist acts and their impact in recent years. In this context, real-world events pointed out how the pedestrians’ safety is significantly affected by the attacks and their consequences on the Built Environment. As already done for other Sudden-onset disasters, evacuation behaviours should be investigated to properly define risk-mitigation strategies, thus considering the impacts of main factors such as attack type, crowd level, pedestrians’ typologies, built environment conditions. This work tries to fill these literature gaps by innovatively proposing a behavioural database for terrorist acts according to consolidated methods. Firstly, videotapes of recent terrorist acts all over Europe are collected. Qualitative analyses reveal which behaviours are common with other kinds of emergencies and which seem to be more frequent, while quantitative analyses provide first structured data to simulate the pedestrians' evacuation, such as speeds and fundamental diagrams of pedestrians' dynamics. Comparisons with existing databases concerning other disasters are provided. Results highlight differences between behavioural outputs of qualitative and quantitative variables considering terrorist acts and other evacuation types. Thus, provided data could be used as input for developing and testing evacuation models in the contexts of terrorist acts.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/291498 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Assessing the flood risk to evacuees in outdoor built environments and relative risk reduction strategies
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Finizio, F.; Postacchini, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Climate-change induced disasters, like floods, are expected to increase in the future. In outdoor built environments, flood risk to evacuees depends on interactions between floodwater spreading, built environment features, flood-induced modifications, and individuals’ reaction in emergency phases. Disaster risk reduction strategies should mitigate the immediate flood impacts and improve the community resilience, while being easy-to-implement and effectively supporting evacuees during the initial phases of the emergency. Simulation-based methodologies could support safety planners in evaluating the effectiveness of such strategies, especially if basing on a micro-scale-oriented approach that represents emergency interactions between each individual and the surrounding outdoor built environment. This study adopts an existing micro-scale simulator (FlooPEDS) reproducing experimental-based flood evacuation behaviours. According to a behavioural design-based approach, simulation results focus on individual responses in the outdoor built environment through Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) aimed at providing evidence of critical interactions between evacuees, floodwaters and the outdoor built environment. A case study is selected by considering different flood scenarios to test such KPIs. Risk reduction solutions are then provided, and their effectiveness is checked by simulations. Results show the micro-scale and behavioural design-based approach capabilities in proposing multi-scenarios solutions (e.g.: architectural elements to support evacuees; emergency planning).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/291669 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Sustainable and resilient strategies for touristic cities against COVID-19: An agent-based approach
SAFETY SCIENCE
Autore/i: D'Orazio, M.; Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Touristic cities will suffer from COVID-19 emergency because of its economic impact on their communities. The first emergency phases involved a wide closure of such areas to support “social distancing” measures (i.e. travels limitation; lockdown of (over)crowd-prone activities). In the “second phase”, individual's risk-mitigation strategies (facial masks) could be properly linked to “social distancing” to ensure re-opening touristic cities to visitors. Simulation tools could support the effectiveness evaluation of risk-mitigation measures to look for an economic and social optimum for activities restarting. This work modifies an existing Agent-Based Model to estimate the virus spreading in touristic areas, including tourists and residents’ behaviours, movement and virus effects on them according to a probabilistic approach. Consolidated proximity-based and exposure-time-based contagion spreading rules are included according to international health organizations and previous calibration through experimental data. Effects of tourists’ capacity (as “social distancing”-based measure) and other strategies (i.e. facial mask implementation) are evaluated depending on virus-related conditions (i.e. initial infector percentages). An idealized scenario representing a significant case study has been analysed to demonstrate the tool capabilities and compare the effectiveness of those solutions. Results show that “social distancing” seems to be more effective at the highest infectors’ rates, although represents an extreme measure with important economic effects. This measure loses its full effectiveness (on the community) as the infectors’ rate decreases and individuals’ protection measures become predominant (facial masks). The model could be integrated to consider other recurring issues on tourist-related fruition and schedule of urban spaces and facilities (e.g. cultural/leisure buildings).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/291493 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Built environment typologies prone to risk: A cluster analysis of open spaces in Italian cities
SUSTAINABILITY
Autore/i: D'Amico, Alessandro; Russo, Martina; Angelosanti, Marco; Bernardini, Gabriele; Vicari, Donatella; Quagliarini, Enrico; Curra, Edoardo
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Planning for preparedness, in terms of multi-hazard disasters, involves testing the relevant abilities to mitigate damage and build resilience, through the assessment of deterministic disaster scenarios. Among risk-prone assets, open spaces (OSs) play a significant role in the characterization of the built environment (BE) and represent the relevant urban portion on which to develop multi-risk scenarios. The aim of this paper is to elaborate ideal scenarios—namely, building environment typologies (BETs)—for simulation-based risk assessment actions, considering the safety and resilience of BEs in emergency conditions. The investigation is conducted through the GIS data collection of the common characteristics of OSs (i.e., squares), identified through five parameters considered significant in the scientific literature. These data were processed through a non-hierar-chical cluster analysis. The results of the cluster analysis identified five groups of OSs, characterized by specific morphological, functional, and physical characteristics. Combining the outcomes of the cluster analysis with a critical analysis, nine final BETs were identified. The resulting BETs were linked to characteristic risk combinations, according to the analysed parameters. Thus, the multi-risk scenarios identified through the statistical analysis lay the basis for future risk assessments of BEs, based on the peculiar characteristics of Italian towns.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/292089 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Nuove tecnologie progettuali per il riuso e la riqualificazione sostenibili di ambienti ipogei di valore culturale
Colloqui.AT.e 2020. Hew Horizons for Sustainable Architecture (Nuovi orizzonti per l'architettura sostenibile)
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; Lucesoli, Michele; Gregorini, Benedetta; D'Orazio, Marco
Editore: Edicom edizioni
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286267 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Sustainable fruition as a preventive conservation strategy for hypogeum artefacts
JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
Autore/i: D'Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.; Bernardini, G.; Gregorini, B.; Gianangeli, A.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: As well as valuable Building Heritage, hypogeum scenarios often host artefacts such as i.e. graffiti, paintings or low reliefs, but differently to them, they are characterized by very particular microclimatic conditions due to their isolation from the outdoor environment. This way, they are very susceptible to human impact due to visitors’ fruition that can cause or accelerate degradation processes. Strategies for preventive conservation of Cultural Heritage should balance Heritage conservation (i.e. building materials and surfaces, hosted goods and chattels) and public access (i.e. visitors’ fruition). In these scenarios, preventive conservation strategies are based on the definition of both interventions on technical installations (to restore or improve indoor environment conditions) and operative models for sustainable fruition (to diminish the impact of stressors on the Heritage). Combining such strategies is not viable in hypogeum environments, which can be hardly equipped by technical systems. To face with such issues, this work proposes a novel strategy for Heritage conservation inside hypogeum environments based on the joint combination between environment microclimatic characterization and visitors’ impact definition. The proposed strategy has been developed and tested on a significant case of study: Palazzo Campana's hypogeum (Osimo, Italy). This hypogeum is a typical example of man-made underground structure characterized by sandstone walls carved in artistic value high-reliefs. Currently, its walls have been becoming very friable and subsequently their surfaces have been exposing to harsh deterioration phenomena. The strategy firstly includes indoor temperature and relative humidity long-term monitoring by means of a real-time widespread sensors system, so as to evaluate microclimatic conditions and its admissible gradients. A novel visitors’ admissible impact is defined on these data, by considering visiting time and numbers of visitors so as to not alter the indoor climate conditions. Visitors’ access tests are then carried out to confirm the proposed visitors’ admissible impact. Results demonstrate the capability of the proposed combined strategies and the possible extension to other Heritage scenarios to reduce the impact of direct interventions and improve preservation aspects.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286264 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Human behaviours and BE investigations to preserve the heritage against SUOD disasters
HERITAGE 2020. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Heritage and Sustainable Development.
Autore/i: Bernabei, Letizia; Mochi, Giovanni; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico; Cantatore, Elena; Fatiguso, Fabio; Angelosanti, Marcom; Currà, Edoardo; D'Amico, Alessandro; Russo, Martina
Editore: Green Lines Institute for Sustainable Development
Luogo di pubblicazione: Barcelos
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286265 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Architectural Heritage and Earthquakes: a semeiotic method to assess building aggregates vulnerability in historical city centres
HERITAGE 2020. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Heritage and Sustainable Development.
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; Lucesoli, Michele
Editore: Green Lines Institute for Sustainable Development
Luogo di pubblicazione: Barcelos
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286266 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Teatri storici all’italiana e rischio incendio: soluzioni intelligenti e non invasive per il progetto
ANANKE
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; D'Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/288306 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
How to account for the human motion to improve flood risk assessment in Urban areas
WATER
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Floods are critical disasters affecting urban areas and their users. Interactions with floodwater spreading and built environment features influence the users' reaction to the emergency, especially during immediate disaster phases (i.e., evacuation). Recent studies tried to define simulation models to evaluate such exposure-related criticalities, assess individuals' flood risk, and propose risk-mitigation strategies aimed at supporting the community's proper response. Although they generally include safety issues (e.g., human body stability), such tools usually adopt a simplified approach to individuals' motion representation in floodwaters, i.e., using input from non-specialized databases and models. This study provides general modelling approaches to estimate evacuation speed variations depending on individual's excitement (walking, running), floodwaters depths and individuals' features (age, gender, height, average speed on dry surfaces). The proposed models prefer a normalized evacuation speeds approach in respect of minimum motion constraint conditions to extend their applicability depending on the individuals' characteristics. Speed data from previous experiments are organized using linear regression models. Results confirm how individuals' speed reduces when depth and age increase. The most significant models are discussed to be implemented in evacuation simulation models to describe the evacuees' motion in floodwaters with different confidence degree levels and then assess the community's flood risk and risk-reduction strategies effectiveness.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286253 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Towards a user-centered framework to support proactive Building Operation and Maintenance: preliminary results of a communication platform between users and stakeholders
TEMA
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Di Giuseppe, Elisa; D’Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Users’ needs and behaviors can alter the building efficiency, thus leading to significant efforts to support Building Operation & Maintenance (O&M) tasks. This work develops the preliminary concepts of a framework for O&M including users’monitoring and engagement strategies. In the context of a complex university building, we developed and tested a users-stakeholders communication platform including a web-based application to report and check failures and damages to building’s components and devices.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/283650 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Integrating human behaviour and building vulnerability for the assessment and mitigation of seismic risk in historic centres: Proposal of a holistic human-centred simulation-based approach
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
Autore/i: Zlateski, A.; Lucesoli, M.; Bernardini, G.; Ferreira, T. M.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The complexity of historic centres implies that risk assessment in those areas should be based on joint analyses of the characteristics of the built environment and the population's features, exposure and interaction with the surrounding environment. Such a holistic approach is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of mitigation strategies, especially in sudden onset disasters, and, mainly, earthquakes. In fact, the effectiveness of retrofitting interventions and emergency management strategies on the safety level depends greatly on such interactions, also in relation to the path network features. This work proposes a PDCA-based methodology for earthquake risk assessment which innovatively combines built environment damage assessment with a simulation of human evacuation behaviour so as to identify potentially inaccessible evacuation paths and urban areas, define related paths/areas safety levels and evaluate the impact of proposed retrofitting and management strategies on the population's safety in an emergency. To this end, a validated seismic vulnerability index method for masonry façade walls is combined with empirical damage assessment correlations (debris depth estimation in outdoor spaces) to create post-earthquake damage scenarios. Then, these are used as input data for evacuation process assessment through an existing earthquake pedestrians' evacuation simulator. Paths and safe areas risk indices are proposed to evaluate the main behavioural issues in emergency conditions. Finally, different solutions aimed at improving evacuation safety (i.e. emergency plans, rescuers' access strategies and retrofitting of buildings) are proposed and discussed for a significant case study, the historic centre of Coimbra, Portugal.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/275133 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Sustainable planning of seismic emergency in historic centres through semeiotic tools: Comparison of different existing methods through real case studies
SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND SOCIETY
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Lucesoli, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Sustainable cities have to constantly face natural catastrophes, and planning actions should be oriented to quickly manage emergency conditions. Earthquake represents one of the most critical disasters. Earthquake-induced built environment modifications (i.e. building debris) affect the urban paths network availability. Historic centres are relevant scenarios because of their specific features (i.e. Heritage vulnerability; complex and compact fabric). Predicting which paths could be used by rescuers to rapidly reach damaged inhabitants could reduce losses and improve first aid actions. Sustainable semeiotic tools are proposed to quickly esteem the paths availability combining street geometrical features and building damages. Currently, no study provides insights on methods reliability. Hence, this work critically analyses methods outcomes by implementing them, for the first time, on the same real-world sample (Italian historic centres). Rapid tools (satellite images, photographic documentation) are used to compare methods previsions with effective post-earthquake paths availability. Pros and cons of each analysed method are evidenced, underlining that the approach that combines street-building geometry, building vulnerability and earthquake severity seems to give the best results. This could help Local Authorities and Civil Protection Bodies in better developing risk-mitigation strategies concerning, e.g., emergency management (rescuers’ access routes definition) and urban planning (building retrofitting interventions).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276196 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Towards a User-Centered and Condition-Based Approach in Building Operation and Maintenance
Sustainability in Energy and Buildings
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Di Giuseppe, Elisa
Editore: Springer
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/271399 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Internal Insulation of Historic Buildings: A Stochastic Approach to Life Cycle Costing Within RIBuild EU Project
Sustainability in Energy and Buildings
Autore/i: Di Giuseppe, Elisa; Maracchini, Gianluca; Gianangeli, Andrea; Bernardini, Gabriele; D’Orazio, Marco
Editore: Springer
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/271390 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Towards the simulation of flood evacuation in urban scenarios: Experiments to estimate human motion speed in floodwaters
SAFETY SCIENCE
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.; D'Orazio, M.; Brocchini, M.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Studies on flood risk assessment at urban scale are becoming increasingly oriented towards the use of evacuation simulation models for population's safety. However, such tools generally simplify human dynamics in floodwater conditions and need data to quantify proper individual's speed. Novel information on the above dynamics is here presented. A group of over 200 volunteers has been engaged in evacuation laboratory experiments carried out into an open channel. Results allow to estimate the pedestrian's isolated motion speed as a function of depth D [m] (in the range 20–70 cm) of floodwater, in both “walking” and “running” conditions. To this aim, experiments were carried out in still water. For each walking conditions and floodwater depth, correlations have been obtained between evacuation speed and age, individuals’ height, mass and body mass index. The existence of significant motion speed differences, depending on D, is underlined. In addition, general trends in evacuation speed reduction depending on the specific flood force per unit width M have been investigated and confirmed. It is also clarified how human physiology and kinematics (i.e. knee articulation) can induce specific speed-affecting effects depending on D. Such quantitative differences in motion discourage the use of fire or general-purpose databases for flood simulations, while such experimental data could be used as input for evacuation models to describe different evacuees’ walking types in evacuation procedure.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276195 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Combining conservation and visitors’ fruition for sustainable building heritage use: Application to a hypogeum
Sustainability in Energy and Buildings. Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
Autore/i: Gregorini, B.; Lucesoli, M.; Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.; D'Orazio, M.
Editore: Springer
Luogo di pubblicazione: Singapore
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: The exploitation of Building Heritage generally leads to sustainability issues in terms of environmental preservation and tourist enjoyment. When these requirements are not jointly respected, occupancy issues can provoke degradation phenomena on indoor environment (i.e., building materials and surfaces with artistic and historical value) or conditions of discomfort during visitors’ fruition. Hence, our research defines a combined strategy to solve at the same time both the issues: guaranteeing the conservation of Building Heritage (and its artefacts) while ensuring optimal visitors’ fruition tasks. The Building Heritage conservation is pursued by a monitoring campaign of ideal (undisturbed) indoor conditions and by the evaluation of the human presence effect considering thermal loads as main driver. The visitors’ fruition is analyzed by assessing individuals’ behavioral patterns in terms of attention given to the hosted artifacts (where and how the visitors’ attention is posed?), through a wearable eye tracking system. The strategy is applied to a hypogeum environment characterized by high reliefs on walls and vaults. This scenario is considered since its isolated hygrothermal conditions are strongly influenced by human presence. Results showed that the environmental preservation is reached when considering the fruition model proposed by the stakeholder. Furthermore, the eye tracking analysis revealed high-level of visitors’ engagement towards significant spaces only when exposed to adequate lighting conditions and/or in a good conservation state.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/278020 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Simulating to evaluate, manage and improve earthquake resilience in historical city centers: Application to an emergency simulation-based method to the historic centre of Coimbra
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLIV-M-1-2020, 2020 HERITAGE2020 (3DPast | RISK-Terra) International Conference, 9–12 September 2020, Valencia, Spain
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Ferreira, T. M.
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Earthquake resilience in historical centres is significantly affected by interactions between the built environment, defined as the network of building heritage and surrounding open spaces, and hosted population. Building vulnerability, earthquake-induced effects and population's exposure mainly influence the first emergency phases. In the immediate post-earthquake evacuation conditions, people should leave their position to gather in assembly points where first responders can rescue them. Thus, joint analyses of building damage and evacuation flows along the evacuation paths become essential to determine the risk levels for the urban scenario and to provide risk-mitigation solutions. This paper tries to reach this goal by adopting a holistic simulation-based approach. A simplified vulnerability assessment method is used to evaluate the seismic performance of masonry façade walls and to estimate debris depth on outdoor spaces. An existing earthquake pedestrians' evacuation simulator is used to evaluate the probable pedestrians' choices in such evacuation post-earthquake damage scenarios. Then, risk indexes, combining damage assessment and evacuation results, are provided to quantify evacuation safety and to outline critical conditions in the urban layout. Finally, the impact resulting from the consideration of a series of resilience-increasing strategies is simulated and discussed from the proposed risk indexes. A part of the historic centre of Coimbra, Portugal, one of the oldest and most relevant Portuguese cities, is used in this work as a pilot case study. Results show how the method could be used by Local Authorities and Civil Protection Bodies to outline, analyse and coordinate resilience-increasing strategies at the urban scale.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/284517 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
A cognitive approach for improving built environment and users’ safety in emergency conditions,
TEMA
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Santarelli, S.; D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Cognitive Systems can be applied in architectural spaces to improve Built Environment performances basing on users’ needs. They can: 1) jointly monitor environmental conditions and human behaviours through Cognitive Built Environment (CBE) components; 2) use human-environment interaction models and related Key Performance Indicators to detect critical situations; 3) adapt CBE devices status to inform users on how to properly behave. This approach is applied to safety performances of outdoor (earthquake) and indoor (fire) scenarios, by proposing and testing solutions to support evacuees while reaching safe areas and rescuers’ support.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268588 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Emergenza alluvione nei centri urbani: un approccio behavioral design-based per la mitigazione del rischio
Colloqui.AT.e 2019. Ingegno e costruzione nell’epoca della complessità
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Lucesoli, Michele; Quagliarini, Enrico
Editore: Ed I. Torino: Politecnico di Torino
Luogo di pubblicazione: Torino
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/270979 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
How knowing people behaviour in disaster events could improve risk analysis, disaster prevention and post-disaster mitigation in historic centres
Rehab 2019 – Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Preservation, Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings and Structures
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele
Editore: Green Lines Institute
Luogo di pubblicazione: Barcelos
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/270981 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Verso il controllo e la gestione della manutenzione negli edifici secondo un approccio “user-centered” e “condition-based”
Colloqui.AT.e 2019 Ingegno e costruzione nell’epoca della complessità – Forma urbana e individualità architettonica
Autore/i: DI GIUSEPPE, Elisa; Bernardini, Gabriele; D’Orazio, Marco
Editore: Edizioni Politecnico di Torino
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/270000 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Seismic risk analysis for disaster prevention in historic centres: a novel methodology for assessing evacuation paths safety.
Rehab 2019 – Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Preservation, Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings and Structures
Autore/i: Lucesoli, Michele; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico
Editore: Green Lines Institute
Luogo di pubblicazione: Barcelos
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/270980 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Proposing behavior-oriented strategies for earthquake emergency evacuation: A behavioral data analysis from New Zealand, Italy and Japan
SAFETY SCIENCE
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Lovreglio, R.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Individuals’ safety in an earthquake highly depends on human reactions and emergency behaviours, especially in first evacuation phases and in urban scenarios. To increase community resilience, Civil Defense Bodies in several earthquake prone countries have defined a list of recommended behaviours to take during and after an earthquake. Following those recommended behaviours could avoid exposing people to additional risks and allow them to reach an effective help from rescuers. Nevertheless, previous studies suggested that differences between recommended behaviors and real-life actions exist and increase the probabilities of casualties. Hence, solutions to assist communities in reducing the occurrence of such “unsafe” phenomena are needed. In this work, we adopt a behavioral approach to examine spontaneous real-life behaviours observed through a database of videotapes of earthquakes from New Zealand, Italy, and Japan. The presence of response actions recommended by Civil Defense Bodies of those three Countries is also assessed. Observed behaviors are organized according to evacuation phases, and comparisons between the three Countries results are provided. An uncertainty assessment is performed to investigate the sample size impact on the proposed analysis. Finally, behavioral results are employed to trace possible valuable solutions aimed at increasing community resilience and individuals’ safety, by limiting the impact of hazardous spontaneous behaviors and providing an effective support to evacuees’ decisions as well as possible. Main solutions categories include assistance tools (e.g.: building components, individual devices), educational training (e.g.: by using serious games), evacuation plans according to the probable evacuation process
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268471 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Flooding Pedestrians’ Evacuation in Historical Urban Scenario: A Tool for Risk Assessment Including Human Behaviors
RILEM Bookseries
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Postacchini, Matteo; Quagliarini, Enrico; D’Orazio, Marco; Brocchini, Maurizio
Editore: Springer Netherlands
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: In the future, safety in historical city centers will be significantly affected by climate change-related disasters, such as floods. Risk assessment in these scenarios requires the combination of a series of factors: possible events characterization; urban layout configuration, its influence on flooding spreading and induced environmental modification; human factor, especially during first emergency phases. Historic urban scenario features (e.g.: compact urban fabrics; position near floodplains; possible inefficient early warning systems) additionally increase individuals’ risks. According to a “behavioral design” approach, developing flood evacuation simulation tools would help safety designers in assessing population’s exposure and then in suggesting emergency strategies to help citizens during such hazardous phases. This paper proposes a flooding evacuation simulation tool, which jointly represents the individuals’ evacuation motion towards safe areas, and the floodwaters spreading in the urban scenario. In particular, the simulator is founded on previous literature results concerning emergency behaviors and motion quantities (e.g.: evacuation speed as function of floodwaters flow) and adopts an agent-based model architecture. A part of the historic city center of Senigallia, an Italian city that suffered a significant flood in 2014, is chosen as application case-study to show tool capabilities. Results outline risk levels for individuals, and evidence critical points (in the urban space and during the time) for man-floodwaters-environment interactions (e.g.: being swept away by floodwaters). By evaluating probable evacuees’ choices in different scenarios, the tool is proposed to check the effectiveness of solutions for reducing evacuation process risks (e.g.: emergency planning; architectural elements development; interventions for floodwaters collection also in urban scenarios).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/263425 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Rapid tools for assessing building heritage's seismic vulnerability: a preliminary reliability analysis
JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
Autore/i: Quagliarini, E.; Lucesoli, M.; Bernardini, G.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Earthquakes represent a relevant issue for Building Heritage safety, especially while referring to historic urban fabric scenarios. Mitigation strategies should limit damages and losses to the Heritage, as well as critical emergency conditions at the urban scale (e.g. earthquake-induced damages on outdoor spaces; occupants’ safety). The possibility to promote numerical analyses and focused retrofitting interventions on isolated buildings and building aggregates (e.g. urban blocks) is strictly connected to the (limited) availability of time and economic resources. Hence, a current key strategy is to detect high-vulnerability elements and then define related risk maps to evidence critical conditions in the urban fabric by using quick-to-be applied approaches, especially about data collection, to allow a quick but enough reliable application at urban scale. Anyway, even if aggregates represent the most common building layout in historic city centres, most of such methods are focused on single structural units, composing the building aggregate, often requiring substantial detail levels (i.e. data from indoor surveys), to estimate post-earthquake conditions (i.e.: Macroseismic Vulnerability Assessment Methods – MVAMs). On the contrary, the few building aggregate-based approaches are generally based on outdoor expeditious data collection methods. Since estimations at urban scale could take advantages of rapid tools by using the related simplified approaches, this research considers two activities. Firstly, a preliminary reliability test is performed to evaluate a novel quick remote data collection approach on two well-known MVAMs. Then, a formulation to assess the seismic vulnerability of the entire aggregate from the indexes of each single structural units (MVAMs-based) is studied. This changing of scale could facilitate risk maps definition, by also extending inspected areas and reducing not necessary details, as well as emergency plans and strategies to define possible unavailable/obstructed paths in historic centres could take advantages to this proposal. A comparison with results from another existing rapid aggregate vulnerability assessment method (SISMA) is employed as a first attempt to verify the reliability of this proposed approach. MVAMs with the extended formulation for aggregates and SISMA according to the remote approach are applied to a real-world sample composed by historic masonry buildings recently affected by earthquakes (i.e. Central Italy, 2016–2017). Results firstly confirm that the novel remote data collection-based for MVAMs do not provokes an underestimation of the building vulnerability, moreover the comparison between the aggregates MVAM-based vulnerability indexes and SISMA underlines the presence of a reliable correlation.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268470 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Investigating Exposure in Historical Scenarios: How People Behave in Fires, Earthquakes and Floods
RILEM Bookseries
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.; D'Orazio, M.
Editore: Springer Netherlands
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: In case of a disaster, the individuals’ safety depends on interactions between buildings vulnerability, related post-event damages and environmental conditions, human reaction to hazardous situations. Such interferences are critical in historical scenarios, because of particular environment features (e.g.: high buildings vulnerabilities; urban layout which is not designed to face actual emergency; individuals’ familiarity with architectural spaces, especially for tourists). Current risk assessment methods are limited to define exposure in terms of population’s presence in the scenario, but analysis should consider human behaviors in emergency, and especially during the evacuation process. Simulation models for evaluating evacuation motion have been recently developed to this aim, and so to evaluate the effectiveness of risk-reduction strategies. Nevertheless, models development and validation should be supported by experimental data to effectively represent the “human factor” in critical conditions. Hence, this paper combines previous literature results and real-life emergency analyses (performed on videotapes database from all over the World), by focusing on three main natural disasters recurrent for historical scenarios: fires, earthquakes and flood. Behavioral analyses try to define significant man-environment interactions from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. Results show how noticed behaviors can be distinguished in common ones and peculiar ones (referring to a specific disaster). Quantitative analyses referring to motion quantities evidence differences between the considered emergencies and underline the importance to adopt specific model inputs for each simulated disaster
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268476 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
New indices for the existing city-centers streets network reliability and availability assessment in earthquake emergency
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE
Autore/i: Santarelli, Silvia; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico; D’Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: During earthquake emergencies in existing city-centers, streets network permits inhabitants to reach safe areas, and rescuers to access damaged zones and help population. However, the network can suffer from blocks due to debris of collapsed or heavily damaged buildings. Understanding urban fabric modifications and classifying elements vulnerability are fundamental steps while dealing with risk-assessment and risk-reduction strategies. This article offers a first quick approach for assessing seismic vulnerability of paths network by considering interferences with building heritage damages. Quick data about existing urban fabric (e.g., buildings typology; streets and buildings geometries) are combined for developing new vulnerability indices for streets network. The earthquake macroseismic intensity is introduced for evaluating probable street blockages and summarizing the overall rating of risks in critical network locations, thus intensity that is not included in other current quick methods for streets-building interference is here taken into account. Risk-reduction strategies based on the proposed indices could minimize the interventions on architectural heritage, maximizing the safety of evacuees. These new indices could be combined with traditional assessment of buildings vulnerability, and evaluations on pedestrians’ and vehicles evacuation flows, for evaluating management strategies
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255384 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
A “smart” low-impact system for guaranteeing sustainable visitors’ access
HERITAGE 2018. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Heritage and Sustainable Development
Autore/i: Gregorini, B.; Bernardini, G.; Gianangeli, A.; Quagliarini, E.; D’Orazio, M.
Editore: Green Line Institute
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268581 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Spazi architettonici cognitivi per la sicurezza delle persone in emergenza: verso lo sviluppo di componenti edili interattivi (Cognitive built environment for user’s safety: towards intelligenti building components for emergency support)
Colloqui.AT.e 2018. Edilizia Circolare
Autore/i: Santarelli, Silvia; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico; D’Orazio, Marco
Editore: Edicom Editore
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268586 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Multi-hazard emergency management in historical centers: methods and tools for increasing mass-gathering safety in case of earthquake
TEMA
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; David, Chiara; Santarelli, Silvia; Quagliarini, Enrico; D’Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The use of historic city centers for touristic purposes, i.e. mass gatherings events (MEs), needs a multi-hazard approach which should jointly consider building heritage and hosted individuals’ emergency safety, by including effects of individuals’ behaviors to provide effective riskreduction strategies (i.e.: interventions on critical Building Heritage; outdoor spaces layout reorganization; emergency management; wayfinding systems;). This work evidences the capabilities of such approach in case of MEs-earthquake emergency combinations, by taking advantaging of a validated evacuation simulator, through a case-study application
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268590 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Building Heritage cognitivo: un sistema per la gestione e la conservazione dell’edificio storico (Cognitive Building heritage: a system for management and conservation of historic buildings)
Colloqui.AT.e 2018. Edilizia Circolare
Autore/i: Gregorini, Benedetta; Gianangeli, Andrea; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico; D’Orazio, Marco
Editore: Edicom Editore
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268583 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Earthquakes in historical city centers:methods for urban paths risk assessment and emergency availability based on historical buildings vulnerability
ReUSO 2018 - L’intreccio Dei Saperi per Rispettare Il Passato Interpretare Il Presente Salvaguardare Il Futuro
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Santarelli, Silvia; D’Orazio, Marco; Quagliarini, Enrico
Editore: Gangemi Editore
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268646 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
La conservazione dell’ambiente ipogeo di Palazzo Campana: monitoraggi e prove di caratterizzazione propedeutici all’intervento
ReUSO 2018 - L’intreccio Dei Saperi per Rispettare Il Passato Interpretare Il Presente Salvaguardare Il Futuro
Autore/i: Gregorini, Benedetta; Gianangeli, Andrea; Bernardini, Gabriele; D’Orazio, Marco; Quagliarini, Enrico
Editore: Gangemi Editore
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268647 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
STRUMENTI PER LA GESTIONE DELL’EMERGENZA NEI CENTRI STORICI
culture costruttive per il recupero sostenibile
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.; D’Orazio, M.
Editore: Edicom edizioni
Luogo di pubblicazione: Monfalcone (Gorizia)
Classificazione: 3 Libro
Abstract: Affrontare l’emergenza sisma nei centri storici implica analizzare congiuntamente la sicurezza di costruito, persone e sistema di spazi urbani, e la gestione delle prime e critiche fasi emergenziali (in particolare, dell’evacuazione), per pianificare azioni efficaci di riduzione del rischio. A tal fine, il volume offre al progettista una visione sistemica su strumenti e metodi utili nel processo decisionale. Nella prima parte, si discute lo stato delle conoscenze e si illustrano criticamente i principali strumenti a disposizione per pianificare e gestire l’emergenza. Partendo dalle ricerche sviluppate dagli autori, la seconda parte espone una proposta operativa innovativa, che sfrutta strumenti metodologici rapidi e avanzati (come quelli basati su tool di simulazione) per valutare diverse soluzioni progettuali. Infine, gli strumenti proposti sono applicati a caso di studio significativo.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/256249 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
MODELLING HUMAN MOTION IN FLOOD EVACUATION: PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Atti del XXXVI Convegno Nazionale di Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche
Autore/i: Postacchini, Matteo; Ascenzi, MARIA BEATRICE; Bruni, Ramona; Finizio, Fiorenza; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico; Brocchini, Maurizio; D'Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Human behaviors in flood emergency affect individuals’ safety levels in urban scenarios. Evacuation simulators are needed to fully perform risk assessment and risk-reduction solutions evaluations. Volunteers are engaged in laboratory experiments to propose floodwaters-evacuation motion relations. A mannequin (representing an adult) is used for determining human stability limits in floodwaters. Preliminary results are compared to previous works and relations could be added to evacuation simulators.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/263430 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Evacuation paths in historic city centres: A holistic methodology for assessing their seismic risk
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; Santarelli, Silvia; Lucesoli, Michele
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: During seismic emergencies in historical urban scenarios, evacuation paths can suffer significant damages and modifications due to both extrinsic (i.e.: building facing the path) and intrinsic (i.e.: pavements state, the presence of underground lifelines or hypogeum) vulnerabilities. Such damages and modifications can hinder the population's evacuation and the first responders’ intervention, mainly because of paths' blockage or unavailability in emergency conditions. Paths’ safety is additionally affected by populations’ exposure conditions, also due to individuals’ motion in the post-earthquake environment. Hence, an analysis of factors influencing the seismic risk of evacuation paths and a consequent evaluation of their safety during the emergency are thus desirable. This work aims to offer a preliminary and quick holistic method for seismic risk assessment and damage level estimation of possible evacuation paths. Firstly, data about safety influencing factors (i.e.: path use and exposure; geometric features; physical-structural features; extrinsic vulnerability; seismic hazard) are collected, associated to related weights and organized in risk indexes according to three calculation approaches. Then, according to real-world data, a correlation about path risk-damage levels is proposed with the additional purpose to evaluate the method capabilities in describing post-earthquake scenarios. Obtained results evidence that the proposed methodology could help safety designers in the seismic emergency planning of urban paths (i.e.: by means of risk maps) by including the management of population's evacuation routes towards assembly points, the optimization of rescuers’ activities and the promotion of different priorities of interventions on building heritage
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/259835 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Earthquake building debris estimation in historic city centres: From real world data to experimental-based criteria
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
Autore/i: Santarelli, Silvia; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Safety and availability of urban paths in case of earthquake depend on buildings vulnerability and related produced debris on streets, especially in historic city centres. Predicting probable critical debris amounts on evacuation paths (i.e.: up to path blockage) can help safety planners to propose focused interventions on buildings, to design more effective emergency plans and to improve the effectiveness of rescuers’ actions while supporting evacuees during first emergency phases. This way, this work proposes new experimentally-based correlations aimed at estimating the amount of external debris for historic masonry buildings (in terms of percentage of facing street area occupied by debris and related debris depth) depending on the vulnerability of these buildings, on the seismic magnitude, and (for the first time) on the combination of these two factors and the path geometric ratio (i.e.: building height versus facing street width), so as to consider the effect of different urban contexts. Different vulnerability assessment methods are also considered to generalise the proposed methodology. Finally, starting from obtained experimental correlations, the method is tested on one case study to demonstrate its capabilities in post-earthquake scenario prevision. The method could be a fundamental tool for the assessment of possible paths blockages and “average” available space for evacuees’ emergency motion along paths. Localizing these emergency interferences on an urban map will allow planners to propose specific risk-reduction strategies in the urban scenario.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/259837 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
L’emergenza sismica nei centri storici in caso di grande affollamento: dall’analisi del comportamento agli strumenti progettuali
Colloqui.AT.e 2017 - DEMOLITION OR RECONSTRUCTION?
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; David, C.; Santarelli, Silvia; Quagliarini, E.; D’Orazio, M.
Editore: Edicom edizioni, Monfalcone (Gorizia)
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255522 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Evacuazione post-sisma nei centri storici: dalla stima del danno alla mitigazione del rischio per la popolazione
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.; Bernardini, G.; Santarelli, Silvia
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Comprendere quanto le macerie causate dal sisma influenzino le capacità del sistema viario d’emergenza ha un ruolo centrale per la sicurezza degli evacuanti e la pianificazione delle operazioni di soccorso, soprattutto nei centri storici
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255398 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Grandi eventi e terrorismo: la progettazione consapevole della sicurezza delle persone
ANTINCENDIO
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.; D’Orazio, M.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: I recenti attentati terroristici di Nizza, Parigi, Manchester e Barcellona, nonché l’evento di Piazza San Carlo a Torino hanno sollevato problematiche significative per la sicurezza alle persone negli spazi architettonici, sia all’interno degli edifici che negli spazi urbani, e specialmente in caso di grandi eventi e pubbliche manifestazioni. Queste emergenze invitano a considerare come, specialmente in condizioni di grande affollamento, il rischio per gli occupanti sia fortemente influenzato dall’interazione tra uomo, il layout spaziale, i danni ambientali (inclusi incendi a seguito di esplosioni), le procedure di emergenza, i sistemi di assistenza nell’evacuazione e la gestione da parte dei soccorritori e delle Forze dell’Ordine. La circolare del Ministero degli Interni del 7 giugno 2017 e le successive direttive indicano i criteri da adottare per assicurare un adeguato livello di “safety” alle persone, presentando gli elementi della normativa cogente per l’antincendio nei luoghi di pubblico spettacolo e negli impianti sportivi. Parallelamente, l’analisi di eventi reali ci suggerisce come comprendere e modellare i comportamenti e le scelte che le persone adottano durante il processo di emergenza ed evacuazione possano essere utili al design degli organismi edili e alla pianificazione “integrata” della sicurezza in essi di fronte a questi scenari di crisi. Come già è stato per il fenomeno incendio (grazie alla Fire Safety Engineering), la progettazione degli spazi architettonici può essere quindi arricchita da questi aspetti anche per questo genere di disastri. Tramite analisi preliminari eventi reali, questo contributo vuole delineare alcune riflessioni preliminari sui punti critici dell’emergenza attentato anche in raffronto alle condizioni di sicurezza delle persone in evento di incendio.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255396 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Soluzioni di wayfinding non invasive per aumentare la sicurezza antincendio negli edifici storici
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Fire safety codes in Building Heritage generally suggest to increase number and dimension of exits and paths so as to reduce the needed egress time. Similar solutions clearly clash with preservation criteria because introduce massive modifications to the original building layout. On the contrary, the “behavioural design” approach tries to solve this conflict by proposing not-invasive solutions based on effective human behaviours. Instead of modifying the building layout, wayfinding solutions can reduce the needed egress time by improving the occupants’ use of paths during the evacuation process. An innovative wayfinding system based on photoluminescent materials (visible in all illumination and smoke conditions) and continuous signage system is proposed. Drills in a significant case study (an historic Italian- style theatre) shows that the maximum egress time decreases of about 26% in comparison to the traditional wayfinding systems, and without any building layout modifications.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255402 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Progettazione sostenibile degli spazi architettonici: ripartiamo dagli utenti
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.; Bernardini, G.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255408 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Modelli comportamentali e indicatori prestazionali per la valutazione dell’emergenza sismica a scala urbana
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.; Bernardini, G.; Santarelli, Silvia
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Earthquake effects on urban scenarios (as building damage, debris on streets, urban fires) influence human psychological, perceptual and behavioural responses in emergency evacuation. Man-environment interactions should be included for a more effective safety assessment but i.e. Italian guidelines, especially at urban scale, do not consider them at all. According to Behavioural Design approach, an experimental-based seismic evacuation simulator is developed. As in Fire Safety Engineering methods for egress analysis, simulator applications on a given scenario allow to assess the impact of individuals’ behaviors on their safety levels. Safety criteria (i.e.: flows along paths, safe area choice and time to reach it, debris influence, trapped people, and their combination) could be joined with traditional evaluations to obtain risk maps, so as to locate critical elements, propose and place interventions (e.g.: on buildings; on emergency plans; wayfinding systems), and compare related different scenarios
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255405 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Algoritmi di ottimizzazione del comfort termico e di qualità dell’aria nelle scuole: sviluppo di un sistema BD-based
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D'Orazio, Marco; Quagliarini, Enrico; Stazi, Francesca; Bernardini, Gabriele; Naspi, Federica; DI PERNA, Costanzo; Ulpiani, Giulia
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/252002 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Earthquake safety in historic city centres: how to plan evacuation routes by considering environmental and behavioural factors
REHAB 2017
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Santarelli, Silvia; Quagliarini, E.; D’Orazio, M.
Editore: Green Lines Institute for Sustainable Development
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: As shown by recent Italian earthquakes, historic city centers placed in earthquake prone areas are critical scenarios for the inhabitants’ safety. They are characterized by complex and com-pact urban fabric and also by significant population presence (including tourists who are gen-erally not familiar with the urban layout). The most important role in case of earthquake emergency is assigned to streets and public spaces, that are used as evacuation paths and safe-ty areas. Current emergency management procedures are generally based on outcomes of ge-ometrical aspects (ratio between buildings heights and street width) or on built environment vulnerability analysis, but completely overlook the human factor. On the contrary, in case of earthquake evacuation, the population has to face with the post-event environment, including modifications due to the earthquake (debris, ruins, possibility to use certain paths): people should gain assembly points by preferring the less dangerous conditions in terms of damaged buildings and bottlenecks due to pedestrians’ evacuation flows. Starting from this point of view, this work provides bases for the definition a novel risk index for streets in earthquake emergency scenarios based on environmental risk level for the possible paths, positions and possible choices of evacuating population and related possible presence of slowing down in the motion process (especially in urban scenarios characterized by high population density or presence of tourists, who can be foreign with the city map). For each street along each possi-ble evacuation path, the evaluation algorithm combines: Vp as the vulnerability of buildings; Cp as the estimation of buildings damages and ruins presence along the street, in function of the earthquake intensity; Pp as the presence of risks with possible fatalities (e.g.: explosion risk); LOSp as level of service [m2/person] for evacuation speeds estimation and prediction of possible bottlenecks. Each factor is associated to a weight according to MCDM criteria. Capa-bilities of the algorithm are evaluated on a case study (the historic city center of Civitanova Marche, MC, Italy) through the application of an Earthquake Pedestrians’ Evacuation Simula-tor (EPES). Results shows how the proposed evaluation method underlines critical environ-mental conditions for man-environment interactions and suggest the definition of a map for priority interventions on building heritage in order to reduce these hazardous conditions for population
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255417 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Soluzioni non invasive per la sicurezza urbana post-sisma: valutazione di un sistema di guida dell’evacuazione
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.; Bernardini, G.; Santarelli, Silvia
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: I sistemi di wayfinding possono aumentare la sicurezza delle persone agevolando l’efficace e autonomo raggiungimento delle zone sicure urbane, dopo aver percepito l’evento sismico
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255401 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Il “Behavioural Design” per la sicurezza sostenibile nel (e del) Building Heritage
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.; Bernardini, G.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Basare le soluzioni per la sicurezza negli ambienti storici a partire dalle esigenze in emergenza degli occupanti permette di dare un valido supporto alle persone pur rispettando i caratteri architettonici
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255397 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Il “Behavioural Design” degli spazi architettonici: verso un approccio smart e sostenibile della progettazione
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.; Bernardini, G.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The common schematic and deterministic approach to architectural design generally consider that planned spaces and facilities could be able to activate intended users’ behaviors. However, real-world scenarios, at different built environment scales and in both normal and emergency situations, stress differences between “theoretical” solutions and users’ responses. This work would like to outline the potentialities of a behavioural-based approach to architectural strategies definition. By adopting an experimental- based methodology (which includes: understanding human behaviors by analyzing experiments and real-world conditions; developing behavioural simulation models; using developed simulator to assess critical man-environment interactions, and evaluate the impact of interferences-reduction strategies), the proposed “Behavioural Design” (BD) would like to adapt architectural spaces depending on human behaviors, so as to correctly supply the needed help to occupants. As main case-studies, BD can be applied to individuals’ safety and indoor environmental quality.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255403 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Wayfinding e gestione dell’esodo in caso di incendio nei teatri storici: soluzioni innovative (e sostenibili) a confronto
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.; D’Orazio, M.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In case of fire, the rapid and correct evacuation of autonomous occupants from Building Heritage can be ensured thorugh wayfinding systems, so as to focus rescuers’ operations on disabled people. These solutions have a low impact on the building since they do not need layout modifications. Contrary to “passive” signage, “active” (intelligent) wayfinding systems monitor human egress process, fire spreading and building damages, and suggest best escape paths depending on these conditions. According to a Behavioural Design approach, this work proposes a low-impact Intelligent Evacuation Guidance Systems-IEGS focused on the human egress behaviors tracking. Sensors data are collected by a central unit, which find the best evacuation route avoiding the use of overcrowded building areas (corridors, staircases, geometrical bottlenecks). Finally, interactive signs (placed at doors and paths intersections) point out these recommended directions to evacuees. The system effectiveness is evaluated by means of egress simulations on a case study (the “Gentile da Fabriano” theatre in Fabriano, Italy), by using a validated simulator developed by our research group. The scenario includes the presence of disabled occupants and related rescuers’ operations. The theater egress time is significantly reduced (up to -32%) by using the active system in respect to the passive one
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255406 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Colloqui.AT.e 2017 Demolition or reconstruction?
Autore/i: Gabriele, Bernardini; Elisa, Di Giuseppe
Editore: Edicom Edizioni
Classificazione: 7 Curatele
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/251263 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Livelli di comfort e consumi energetici negli edifici: verso una progettazione basata sul comportamento degli utenti
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D'Orazio, Marco; Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; Stazi, Francesca; Naspi, Federica
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/252000 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Interazione uomo-ambiente nelle aule scolastiche: driving factors per la progettazione di soluzioni sostenibili
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D'Orazio, Marco; Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; Stazi, Francesca; Naspi, Federica
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/252001 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Fire Safety of Historical Buildings. Traditional Versus Innovative “Behavioural Design” Solutions by Using Wayfinding Systems
SPRINGERBRIEFS IN APPLIED SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY
Autore/i: BERNARDINI, GABRIELE
Editore: Springer Verlag
Luogo di pubblicazione: Cham
Classificazione: 3 Libro
Abstract: This book applies a behavioral point of view to individuals’ fire safety in historic buildings. It outlines theoretical and operative issues, based on recent studies and international guidelines. Firstly, critical issues for Building Heritage fire safety are widely discussed, by including the modelling of human factor and man-environment-fire interference in these architectural spaces. A significant part of the book includes a discussion on emergency modeling and simulation. A source code for representing the fire evacuation process (including man-evacuation facilities interactions) is offered to the reader. Methods for effectiveness assessment of risk-reducing solutions are provided and tested in a case-study. Being a structured approach to occupants-related problems during a fire in heritage buildings, it offers an innovative methodology and practical examples that researchers and designers can use as a guide when proposing and testing solutions. Evaluation indexes for effectiveness assessment (also useful for future guidelines or handbooks) are included. Readers are encouraged to understand these indexes within the proposed approach, so as to extend their applications and possibilities of how to introduce human behaviors-based solutions in other fields. Lastly, attention is focused on the proposal and evaluation of low-impact and not-invasive strategies, such as ones based on wayfinding elements. From this point of view, the pros and cons of wayfinding systems are discussed: these are important today, especially for fire-safety designers, because of the ongoing innovations in this field.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276277 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Design of a smart system for indoor climate control in historic underground built environment
ENERGY PROCEDIA
Autore/i: Stazi, Francesca; Gregorini, Benedetta; Gianangeli, Andrea; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The application of sensors-actuators networks in Building Heritage can lead to significant improvement in indoor climate control, with the aim to both reduce energy consumption, and improve conditions for occupants and hosted Heritage. This study proposes the preliminary design of a smart indoor climate control system, based on low-impact application criteria, which can be applied to visited underground built environment. The system is based on the balance of hygrothermal loads. Sensors and actuators requirements are defined, and control algorithm are based on the comparison between real-time monitored and “natural” temperature and hygrometric values (for stationary and transitory conditions).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255377 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Introduction
Fire Safety of Historical Buildings. Traditional Versus Innovative “Behavioural Design” Solutions by Using Wayfinding Systems
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.
Editore: Springer Verlag
Luogo di pubblicazione: Cham
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Fires, earthquakes, floods, and other kinds of disasters damage an enormous amount of buildings and people each year around the world.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276291 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
A preliminary combined simulation tool for the risk assessment of pedestrians' flood-induced evacuation
ENVIRONMENTAL MODELLING & SOFTWARE
Autore/i: BERNARDINI, GABRIELE; POSTACCHINI, MATTEO; QUAGLIARINI, ENRICO; BROCCHINI, MAURIZIO; CIANCA, CATERINA; D'ORAZIO, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/251392 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Flooding risk in existing urban environment: From human behavioral patterns to a microscopic simulation model
ENERGY PROCEDIA
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Camilli, Selene; Quagliarini, Enrico; D'Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Climate changes-related floods will seriously strike population in existing urban environment. Despite Current assessment methods seem to underestimate the human behaviors influence on individuals’ safety, especially during outdoor evacuation. Representing pedestrians’ evacuation would allow considering the “human” factor in risk analysis. This work proposes a flood-induced pedestrians’ evacuation simulation model, based on a combined microscopic approach. Behavioral rules, obtained by real events videotapes analyses, are organized in an agent-based model. Motion criteria proposals are based on the Social Force Model. Experimental motion quantities values are offered. The model will be implemented in a risk assessment simulation tool.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255383 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Comparing real and predicted window use in offices. A POE-based assessment
ENERGY PROCEDIA
Autore/i: Stazi, Francesca; Naspi, Federica; Bernardini, Gabriele; D'Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Accurate predictions of human-building interactions are essential to decrease energy waste and improve indoor comfort. Although users’ dynamic behaviour has been recognised, most of simulation programs still work using deterministic rules. This paper investigates the effectiveness of both deterministic and stochastic models in reproducing window openings, using a Post- Occupancy evaluation (POE). A summer monitoring campaign in offices settled in Mediterranean climate was performed to acquire experimental data. Results highlight that deterministic approaches poorly reflect real behaviours. Probabilistic models seem to represent effective users’ actions. Findings demonstrate the urgent need of behavioural approaches in simulations.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/251987 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Application to a case study: Fire safety in historical theaters
Fire Safety of Historical Buildings. Traditional Versus Innovative “Behavioural Design” Solutions by Using Wayfinding Systems
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.
Editore: Springer Verlag
Luogo di pubblicazione: Cham
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Historical theaters represent a representative case-study in Building Heritage fire-safety issue, because of environmental factors (e.g.: structures vulnerability, fire source presence, artistic value of building, building layout) and occupants’ features. (mainly: high occupants density, level of familiarity with architectural spaces). This chapter compares different solutions to the wayfinding issue in similar scenarios, by means of an Italian significant case-study. Experimental drills and simulation activities are used in order to define the effectiveness of innovative wayfinding systems (both "active" and "passive") in comparison to the current evacuation facilities. Results show how the proposed systems enhance motion speeds, evacuation times, and the percentage of people choosing the correct evacuation paths because they are effectively able to supply people needs in evacuation and interact with their behaviours. At the same time, solutions involve easy-to-apply building components, that are introduce no architectural modifications to the original building layout and features.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276293 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Conclusions and perspectives
Fire Safety of Historical Buildings. Traditional Versus Innovative “Behavioural Design” Solutions by Using Wayfinding Systems
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.
Editore: Springer Verlag
Luogo di pubblicazione: Cham
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Improving occupants’ safety in Building Heritage and guaranteeing the architectural spaces preservation could be jointly reached through an innovative approach based on Behavioral Design-based strategies. The implementation of effective and interactive wayfinding systems based on human needs and responses in fire evacuation could significantly solve these two issues. A significant example is provided by this book discussion and results.Nevertheless, the capabilities ofwayfinding solutions and BD criteria use should be extended and further works are needed. This chapter summarizes themain reached goals and the further steps in related researches (mainly, for researchers) and in the application of similar strategies (mainly, for designers), by developing these solutions at different scales (building, urban scale), and for other emergencies. Finally, some interesting perspectives in adopting the proposed design methodology to other issues in quality of architectural spaces (the ones affected by man-environment interactions, such as thermal comfort).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276288 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
How to simulate pedestrian behaviors in seismic evacuation for vulnerability reduction of existing buildings
AIP Conference Proceedings
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; D'Orazio, Marco
Editore: American Institute of Physics Inc.
Luogo di pubblicazione: Melville, New York
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Understanding and representing how individuals behave in earthquake emergencies would be essentially to assess the impact of vulnerability reduction strategies on existing buildings in seismic areas. In fact, interactions between individuals and the scenario (modified by the earthquake occurrence) are really important in order to understand the possible additional risks for people, especially during the evacuation phase. The current approach is based on “qualitative” aspects, in order to define best practice guidelines for Civil Protection and populations. On the contrary, a “quantitative” description of human response and evacuation motion in similar conditions is urgently needed. Hence, this work defines the rules for pedestrians’ earthquake evacuation in urban scenarios, by taking advantages of previous results of real-world evacuation analyses. In particular, motion laws for pedestrians is defined by modifying the Social Force model equation. The proposed model could be used for evaluating individuals’ evacuation process and so for defining operative strategies for interferences reduction in critical urban fabric parts (e.g.: interventions on particular buildings, evacuation strategies definition, city parts projects).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255395 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Cruise ships like buildings: Wayfinding solutions to improve emergency evacuation
BUILDING SIMULATION
Autore/i: Casareale, Cristina; Bernardini, Gabriele; Bartolucci, Andrea; Marincioni, Fausto; D'Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This research aims at demonstrating that wayfinding solutions can improve the effectiveness of the evacuation processes in complex architectural spaces such as those of cruise ships. We investigated the behaviours of passengers in maritime disaster to figure out whether people act similarly during buildings egress and ships evacuation. Data were collected through questionnaires administered in 2015 to passengers boarding various cruise ships at the port of Ancona (Italy), and through the analysis of real footage of the evacuation of the Costa Concordia. The open source software Fire Dynamics Simulator with Evacuation (FDS+EVAC), used in building egress analyses, was adapted to include these behavioural and event information such as familiarity with ship layout, ship rotation and lifeboats boarding. Simulation results on the case study confirmed similarities between ships and buildings evacuations, underlining the effectiveness of wayfinding solutions to improve passengers’ evacuation flows and routes selection. This study also demonstrated that computer simulation could benefit the ship design process, the preparation of safety guidelines, and the crewmembers during naval emergency management training.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/250351 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
How to help elderly in indoor evacuation wayfinding: Design and test of a not-invasive solution for reducing fire egress time in building heritage scenarios
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico; D’Orazio, Marco; Santarelli, Silvia
Editore: Springer International Publishing AG
Luogo di pubblicazione: Cham
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Population aging increases the importance of emergency safety for elderly, especially in complex and unfamiliar spaces. Individuals who can autonomously move should be encouraged to evacuate by themselves, and adequate help should be provided to them. To this aim, a “behavioral design” approach of these elderly facilities is proposed: understanding behaviors and needs in emergency; designing systems for interacting with them during an emergency; testing solutions in real environment or by using validated simulators. Wayfinding tasks are fundamental aspects in evacuation: elderly have to receive proper information about paths to be used, in the simplest, clearest and most unequivocal way, so as to reduce wrong behavioral choices and building egress time as much as possible. This work proposes a robust wayfinding system based on photoluminescent material (PLM) tiles with continuous applications along paths. Tests concerning a significant case study (an historical theatre) evidence how the proposed system allow to significantly increase elderly evacuation speed (more than 20%) in respect to the traditional system. It could be introduced in other buildings for increasing elderly safety and data are useful to define man-wayfinding systems interactions.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255392 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Dynamic guidance tool for a safer earthquake pedestrian evacuation in urban systems
COMPUTERS, ENVIRONMENT AND URBAN SYSTEMS
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Santarelli, Silvia; Quagliarini, Enrico; D'Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In earthquake disasters, the leading causes of death are directly related both to build collapses and fatalities during the following evacuation phase. Allowing people to autonomously gain safe areas and assembly points should be the basis for reducing human losses in urban systems. However, some important environmental and behavioural factors (e.g. vulnerability of buildings, compact urban fabric, cascade effects, presence of people unfamiliar with the urban layout, absence of information on evacuation paths) can hinder this ‘self-help’-based evacuation process. This issue is really important in historical centres where evacuees suffer a combination of unfavourable conditions to safely escape. This paper concerns a non-invasive solution for guiding people along probable safe evacuation routes in earthquake emergency. The proposed Seismic Pedestrians' Evacuation Dynamic Guidance Expert System (SpeedGuides) considers the influence of the main environmental and behavioural safety factors for evacuees (i.e. street vulnerability, street blockages probability, crowding conditions along paths, presence of mortal dangers, visibility conditions) and combines them in a safety index through the Multi-criteria techniques application. SpeedGuides dynamically collects safety factor data during the time and suggests the possible safest path to the nearest secure zone according to the Dijkstra's algorithm approach. SpeedGuides is an easy-to-use model proposed for application on personal devices (e.g. smartphone) that, taking advantage of different expert methods, allows evacuees to simple enhance their safety. A first effectiveness evaluation of SpeedGuides is provided through an earthquake pedestrians' evacuation simulator in a significant case study. The evacuee performances (with and without the proposed guidance tool) are compared and discussed. Results demonstrate how individuals' safety levels are increased when evacuees use SpeedGuides.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255382 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Earthquakes and historic masonry buildings: an experimentally based algorithm for debris formation prediction
REHAB 2017 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Preservation, Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Historical Buildings and Structures
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Santarelli, Silvia; Quagliarini, E.; D’Orazio, M.
Editore: Green Lines Institute for Sustainable Development
Luogo di pubblicazione: Barcelos
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Immediately after an earthquake, the emergency paths play an important role for evacuees and rescuers in historic centres. Especially in historical scenarios, earthquake effects could affect the mobility system and interaction between people and modified scenario. The spreading of debris from damaged buildings on the paths could obstacle the citizens’ evacuation to safe points and rescue operations. For this reason, defining quick criteria about seismic behaviours of historic building and related debris formation along streets and public spaces are the first steps in defining effective damage scenario maps, designing risk reduction interventions on critical areas, evaluating emergency plans and innovative risk-reduction tools for helping peo-ples. The present work offers an experimental relationship for the estimation of external debris for-mation (amount of debris along streets) by means of post-earthquake aerial images of Italian historic centres (images of the immediate aftermath of L’Aquila-2009 and Emilia-2012 earth-quakes are examined). For each building, the quick proposed algorithm evaluates the percent-ages of external debris area (along the facing street) as function of its vulnerability and earth-quake magnitude (Richter scale). The algorithm is firstly validated by comparing predicted and effective values of ruins area depths in the considered case-studies. Similar debris estimation relationships could offer significant information for evaluating risk levels in street network damages and could be also combined with simulations about probable pedestrians’ evacuation in post-earthquake scenario. Results will be useful in order to reduce the identified interfer-ences between built environment and evacuation process through interventions on critical his-toric buildings (in their relations with the street network elements) and strategies for emer-gency management.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255416 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
How to increase occupants safety with no architectural modifications: Defining effective wayfinding systems
Fire Safety of Historical Buildings. Traditional Versus Innovative “Behavioural Design” Solutions by Using Wayfinding Systems
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.
Editore: Springer Verlag
Luogo di pubblicazione: Cham
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Wayfinding is ones of the most significant issues during a fire evacuation in Historical Buildings, mainly because of possible building layout complexity, level of occupants’ familiarity with the architectural spaces, and potential environmental modifications due to fire effects. Proper wayfinding systems could be able to increase safety levels for occupants by reducing the egress time. Furthermore, these solutions are generally able to maintain a low impact on the building itself (and on its layout). However, according to a Behavioral design (BD) approach, they should be designed in order to effective provide the needed assistance to evacuees, by "interacting" with their behaviours. This chapter firstly offers an organization of existing wayfinding strategies, by mainly distinguishing active and passive systems (since they can bring or not "dynamic" directional information to the evacuees). The attention is focused on the interaction with human behaviors and the possibility to apply the systems (and related building components) to Building Heritage scenarios. Methodologies to evaluate the evacuation facilities effectiveness are outlined according to previous researches and BD studies recommendations.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276285 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Fire safety and building heritage: The occupants perspective
Fire Safety of Historical Buildings. Traditional Versus Innovative “Behavioural Design” Solutions by Using Wayfinding Systems
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.
Editore: Springer Verlag
Luogo di pubblicazione: Cham
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Current regulations and approaches to fire safety seem to be generally characterized by a schematic and deterministic point of view, especially while dealing with Building Heritage. They generally consider how interventions on buildings could be enough for reducing people’s risk, because occupants would surely behave in the correct way. Hence, massive modifications to the original building layout can be adopted (limited, e.g., to increasing number and dimensions of egress paths), while effective man-environment and man-man emergency evacuation interactions are underestimated. Starting from this issue, this chapter firstly analyses main limitations of these approaches, by focusing on human behaviors during a fire, especially in case of emergencies in historical buildings. To this end, main aspects of both significant international and national regulations and literature studies on human fire evacuation behaviors are organized and reviewed. Hence, the importance of innovative strategies, such as the ones based on the Fire Safety Engineering approach, is discussed by mainly evidencing the fundamental impact of human behavior modeling as a new tool for designing and evaluating low-impact risk-reduction solutions.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276289 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Improving human safety in cultural heritage buildings: experiments on effectiveness of wayfinding systems in a theatre
TEMA
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Current fire safety regulations in historical buildings are generally limited to the number and dimension of exits and evacuation paths. This approach clearly clashes with preservation criteria because of the need of invasive layout modifications. On the contrary, a “behavioural design” approach could solve this conflict by proposing evacuation facilities based on effective human behaviours. This work proposes an innovative wayfinding system based on phtoluminescent continuous signs. Experiments in a significant real world scenario demonstrate the possibility to considerably decrease the evacuation timing without building layout modifications
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255412 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Behavioural design for building construction : from human behaviours to smart spaces
BACK TO 4.0: RETHINKING THE DIGITAL CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, Enrico; D’Orazio, M.
Editore: Maggioli
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255516 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
A “behavioural design” approach for architectural spaces design. Development of tools and solutions for fire and earthquake emergency evacuation at different scales.
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele
Editore: Università Politecnica delle Marche
Classificazione: 8 Tesi di dottorato
Abstract: La sicurezza degli spazi architettonici in emergenza implica una corretta gestione del processo di evacuazione. L’attuale approccio alla progettazione è influenzato da determinismo e schematicità: si suppone che conformazione di spazi e facilities (sistemi di wayfinding) sia di per sè in grado di plasmare il comportamento umano. Il progettista spesso adotta metodi semplificati (da manuali e norme) che considerano l’evacuazione un evento fluidodinamico con scelte umane rigidamente codificate. La letteratura dimostra però come i rapporti uomo-ambiente rendano vane le soluzioni comunemente adottate. Inoltre, stessi problemi sono riscontrati a grande (spazi urbani) e piccola scale (singoli edifici). Lo studio propone un nuovo approccio: il behavioural design (BD) intende progettare spazio e facilities basandosi sul reale comportamento umano. Le fasi principali sono perciò comprensione del comportamento umano con prove sperimentali, sviluppo e validazione di simulatori di evacuazione; analisi del processo per individuarne le criticità; proposta di soluzioni e valutazione dell’impatto tramite simulatore o prove reali. La metodologia BD è applicata a 2 casi riguardanti scenari esistenti complessi. Cardine è minimizzare gli interventi grazie alla localizzazione dei punti critici del processo e alla progettazione di nuovi componenti edilizi. Il primo caso ha visto lo sviluppo di un modello per la simulazione dell’evacuazione post-sisma su scala urbana. Il modello può essere usato per stimare il rischio includendo il fattore umano, valutare l’efficacia di interventi su edifici ed asseto urbano, e di procedure di emergenza. Il secondo caso sviluppa nuovi sistemi di wayfinding in edifici storici (teatri). Essi sono progettati per interagire efficacemente con le persone, guidandole attraverso le corrette vie di fuga, e senza apportare sostanziali modifiche al layout architettonico. Il lavoro è stato svolto anche in coordinazione con il cluster TAV-progetto SHELL O.R.4.4.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/242972 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Il processo di evacuazione nel codice di prevenzione incendi. riflessioni sul tempo di premovimento
ANTINCENDIO
Autore/i: Gabriele, Bernardini; Marco, D'Orazio
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/236904 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
EARTHQUAKE SAFETY OF HISTORICAL URBAN FABRICS: A COMBINED APPROACH INCLUDING HUMAN BEHAVIOURAL ASPECTS
6th Euro-American Congress On Construction Pathology, Rehabilitation Technology And Heritage Management - Rehabend 2016
Autore/i: BERNARDINI, GABRIELE; QUAGLIARINI, ENRICO; SPALAZZI, Luca; D'ORAZIO, Marco
Editore: Serigrafias Serimar, S.A.
Luogo di pubblicazione: Burgos
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/236894 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Intelligent evacuation guidance systems for improving fire safety of Italian-style historical theatres without altering their architectural characteristics
JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Azzolini, Matteo; D'Orazio, Marco; Quagliarini, Enrico
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Fire risk in Architectural Heritage represents a fundamental problem for occupants’ safety. Italian-style historical theatres are one of the most interesting examples because of their historic and artistic value, high fire vulnerability, fire sources and occupants’ features (many people are not familiar with the architectural spaces). Current fire safety regulations approaches for similar Architectural Heritage generally suggest massive and irreversible interventions in order to improve the occupants’ level of safety: main related solutions concern with interventions on building layout (e.g. introduction of fire-proof elements; increasing dimension and number of evacuation paths and exits). This really implies a conflict in preserving original architectural characteristics. Besides, experiments demonstrate how these adopted solutions can be insufficient in improving the individuals’ safety level, especially in case of high occupants’ density and people who are unfamiliar with the building itself, because of individuals’ behaviours in emergency conditions. An efficient emergency evacuation layout has to be able to help evacuating occupants, especially in smoke or blackout conditions. “Intelligent Evacuation Guidance Systems” (IEGS) could monitor human behaviours (how people move) and related criticisms in the evacuation process (e.g. slowing down along paths, paths blockage). Then, they could elaborate these data through smart inducing algorithm so as to suggest dynamic evacuation paths to occupants. In this way, IEGS can effectively suggest the “best” evacuation path to occupants depending on the effective human behaviours. In this paper, an IEGS is firstly defined by introducing suggested low impact environmental components and their related requirements. In particular, occupants’ behaviours are associated to evacuees’ density along egress paths, doors and exits, by using indoor individuals’ tracking systems (e.g. RFID, Wireless localization). A density-based algorithm based on Level-of-Service conditions is adopted for evaluating possible overcrowding phenomena and identify the best evacuation paths. Directional electrically-illumined signs are used so as to indicate the proper direction to occupants. Wireless communication between the system elements is required. Each element is provided with backup power supply. Then, the proposed IEGS is evaluated by applying it to a significant case study (the “Gentile da Fabriano theatre” in Fabriano, AN). Interactions between occupants and IEGS are reproduced within a validated fire evacuation simulator (FDS + EVAC), and the system effectiveness is evaluated by performing evacuation simulation for the whole building. Comparisons of evacuation times between the original scenario and the IEGS-related one are proposed. Total maximum egress time is reduced down to 26% in the IEGS scenario (40% for levels with 3 or more different possible paths). The number of people using secondary paths (that are also the less crowded ones) raises to 88%. IEGS elements correctly and fully interact with people by understanding their evacuation behaviour and suggesting them the most appropriate (clearest) path: hence, the overall evacuation efficiency can be so increased by virtue of this “behavioural design” approach. Besides, it is strongly important to underline how IEGS elements provide no architectural modifications.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/247175 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Urban scenarios modifications due to the earthquake: ruins formation criteria and interactions with pedestrians’ evacuation
BULLETIN OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
Autore/i: QUAGLIARINI, ENRICO; BERNARDINI, GABRIELE; Wazinski, Chiara; SPALAZZI, Luca; D'ORAZIO, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: One of the most influencing elements in inhabitants’ earthquake safety definition is represented by the interactions between people and post-event environment in urban scenarios. Understanding and simulating rules for pedestrians’ motion in earthquake evacuation could be useful to inquire the risk assessment introducing the ‘‘human’’ factor influence: integrated ‘‘risk maps’’ could be realized by combining results of similar analyses with the traditional site hazard, buildings vulnerability and exposition indices. This work proposes an innovative approach based on the analysis of these interactions. Two experimentally-based activities are required: an analysis of human behaviors towards the post-earthquake environment; a relation for defining environmental modifications. Results firstly show a summary of man-environment interactions in earthquake evacuations. A possible criterion for path choice in evacuation is also numerically defined. A theoretical agent-based model is developed on these bases and summarizes phases, motion rules and man-environment interactions in earthquake pedestrians’ evacuation in urban scenarios. Secondly, quick criteria for scenario modifications involving ruins formation are proposed and evaluated: for each building, the percentages of internal and external ruins area is a function of its vulnerability and the expected earthquake Richter magnitude. Moreover, the external ruins formation criterion is validated by comparing predicted and effective values of ruins area depth in real cases. The model could be proposed as a tool for evaluating probable pedestrians’ choices in post-event scenarios, in order to reduce the interferences between the built environment and the evacuation process through interventions on buildings, urban fabric and strategies for emergency management.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/236175 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Towards creating a combined database for earthquake pedestrians' evacuation models
SAFETY SCIENCE
Autore/i: BERNARDINI, GABRIELE; QUAGLIARINI, ENRICO; D'ORAZIO, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Earthquake risk assessment at urban scale is actually based on site hazard, buildings vulnerability and exposition, but does not consider human behaviours during both the event and the evacuation. Nevertheless, human interactions in such conditions become one of the most influencing element for inhabitants safety. Hence, an important issue is understanding how people interact with other individuals and with the environment modified by the earthquake. The development of evacuation software in earthquake conditions needs investigations about these aspects. In fact, actual data about earthquake evacuation behaviours are very poor. This work starts from this request and proposes an innovative database for earthquake evacuation models according to literature suggestions. A wide number of videotapes concerning real events from all over the World is analysed in order to provide human behaviours and motion quantities, and to integrate previous results. The database firstly includes the step-by-step evacuation behaviours that are activated during the process. Secondly, motion quantities (speed, acceleration, and distance from obstacles) are provided. The analysis of real emergency conditions evidences particular phenomena. Main results demonstrate how people prefer moving with an average speed of about 2.3–3 m/s. Finally, fundamental diagrams of pedestrians’ dynamics in earthquake emergency conditions show how, density values being equals, speeds and flows are higher than previous studies (in particular: fire evacuation and evacuation drill). These data can be used as input parameters for defining and developing new evacuation models, but also for existent models validation.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/229770 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Towards a "behavioural design" approach for seismic risk reduction strategies of buildings and their environment
SAFETY SCIENCE
Autore/i: BERNARDINI, GABRIELE; D'ORAZIO, Marco; QUAGLIARINI, ENRICO
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Earthquake safety paradigms in urban scenarios can be represented by the following: buildings response to ground shaking; possibility to evacuate urban areas; rescuers’ assistance to evacuating pedestrians after reaching assembly points in the urban fabric. The first element is widely investigated and involves studies on buildings vulnerability and site hazard. Last two issues are strongly influenced by urban scenarios modifications due to the earthquake and human behaviours during both event and evacuation. Consequently, understanding how people behave in similar conditions becomes an essential issue in order to properly evaluate the urban risk assessment, efficiently organize evacuation procedures and plan interventions (on critical buildings, infrastructures). Hence, this paper firstly offers an overview of current literature on human behaviour in earthquake so far as urban scenario safety is concerned. Critical factors that determine individuals’ response performances focus on human behaviours and environmental modifications due to the earthquake. The study underlines how some of the assumptions about the existing paradigms seem to be not consistent with the knowledge set out in the literature: individuals’ behaviours are generally neglected while proposing risk-reduction strategies (management, interventions on buildings), and these strategies are supposed to directly induce correct emergency behaviours on people. On the contrary, a successful approach should combine traditional evaluations with innovative analyses on human behaviours and man–environment interactions in earthquake conditions: hence, this paper finally suggests a “behavioural design” approach. Following fire safety engineering criteria, simulation models would be used for evaluating the exposure parameter and check operative strategies for interferences reduction in emergency conditions.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/236174 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Fire safety in Italian-style historical theatres: How photoluminescent wayfinding can improve occupants' evacuation with no architecture modifications
JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
Autore/i: D'ORAZIO, Marco; BERNARDINI, GABRIELE; Tacconi, Silvia; Arteconi, Valentina; QUAGLIARINI, ENRICO
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Architectural Heritage is often prone to fire risk especially when many significant wooden structures with a particular historic and artistic value are present. This is the case of the Italian style historical theatres. Increasing fire safety of this architectural heritage generally clashes with preserving the original building features: massive and irreversible interventions are often needed so as to respect current severe regulations. Moreover, upgrading interventions can be insufficient so as to effectively improve occupants’ safety level, especially in overcrowded spaces and when people do not know much of the building itself. Occupants’ safety depends on their behaviours and their possibility to rapidly evacuate to a safe place. One of the most effective ways to help them to achieve this aim seems to be the adoption of a good emergency evacuation wayfinding system, especially in smoke or black-out conditions. This paper analyses the effectiveness of a reversible, easy-to-remove and low-impact system for evacuation guidance based on photoluminescent materials (PLM). The proposed continuous wayfinding system (CWS) is composed by PLM tiles along evacuation paths (both corridors and stairs). The application to a case study, the Italian style historical theatre “Gentile da Fabriano”, is then provided. Tests involve more than 100 individuals in smoke and black out conditions. CWS effectiveness was compared to a traditional punctual system in terms of motion speeds (for single pedestrians) and total evacuation time (for the whole building evacuation drill). Questionnaires filled in by involved pedestrians qualitatively evaluated the individuals’ acceptance of CWS. Tests with CWS show that individual's motion speed rises up to 50% and the total evacuation time is reduced down to 25% in respect to the traditional system. Comparisons with previous studies on PLM signs are provided. CWS can be easily introduced in this kind of historical theatres so as to increase the occupants’ safety level.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/234663 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Fire exit signs: The use of neurological activity analysis for quantitative evaluations on their perceptiveness in a virtual environment
FIRE SAFETY JOURNAL
Autore/i: Occhialini, Martina; Bernardini, Gabriele; Ferracuti, Francesco; Iarlori, Sabrina; D'Orazio, Marco; Longhi, Sauro
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Emergency signs represent the easiest way to assist a person during an emergency building evacuation, such as in a fire. However, previous studies show that signs can also not be correctly perceived (because of: smoke/lighting conditions, sign positions in relation to individual's position, pictograms dimensions), consequently becoming useless. This study focuses on the effectiveness of exit signs, in terms of type and position. The related numerical quantification is founded on an objective experimental neurological method. A neurological stimulus (P300) is generated when the individual understands the meaning of the sign. It is so possible to objectively evaluate by using a neuro-headset the performance of each subject in terms of perceptual attention. The use of similar direct data overlooks errors connected to conscious or unconscious individual mediation in answers. Evacuation motion simulations are performed using a virtual reality environment because of limits in the neuro-headset use when walking. Two types of exit signs (reflective and photoluminescent) are tested considering different positions and environmental conditions (illuminated and not). The sign identification distance is retrieved and compared to results of real-world experiments. Finally, the sign effectiveness is also inquired in terms of statistical P300 presence on the analysed sample. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/237317 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
Aumentare la sicurezza delle persone in edifici storici: verifica sperimentale di un innovativo sistema di wayfinding all’interno di un teatro
L’EVOLUZIONE DEL SAPERE IN ARCHITETTURA TECNICA
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Editore: Maggioli
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255518 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
Earthquake pedestrians’ evacuation in historical urban scenarios: a combined simulation model including human behaviors and post-earthquake modifications
Rehab 2015 – Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Preservation, Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings and Structures
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Editore: Green Lines Institute for Sustainable Development
Luogo di pubblicazione: Barcelos
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/237911 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
Design and experimental evaluation of an interactive system for pre-movement time reduction in case of fire
AUTOMATION IN CONSTRUCTION
Autore/i: D'Orazio, Marco; Longhi, Sauro; Bernardini, Gabriele; Paolo, Olivetti
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Abstract After hearing a fire alarm, people continue to carry out activities not directly connected to the evacuation procedure: this pre-movement phase could be very long, especially when people are involved in carrying out their working activities and in using their electronic devices. Starting from this problem regarding safety, our study proposes a system for reducing pre-movement time that is based on an interaction with the people being evacuated. The system, composed of individual wearable devices, is organized in two modules: the first is the Zig-Bee-based localization module which identifies people's positions after the alarm and understands whether they are evacuating; the second is an interactive module which gives a personal stimulus to latecomers. This system was tested for university building evacuation. A case study has been analyzed, which also compared experimental results to those of simulation software. The simulator was able to reasonably reproduce the real phenomenon. The effectiveness of the system was investigated through simulations by considering different individual responses. Our results demonstrate that up to 30% reduction in total evacuation time can be obtained.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/226852 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
Evacuation Aid for Elderly in Care Homes and Hospitals: An Interactive System for Reducing Pre-movement Time in Case of Fire
Ambient Assisted Living - Italian Forum 2014
Autore/i: D'Orazio, Marco; Bernardini, Gabriele; Longhi, Sauro; Olivetti, Paolo
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/237315 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
Earthquake Emergencies Management by Means of Semantic-Based Internet of Things
Internet of Things. IoT Infrastructures
Autore/i: Taccari, Gilberto; Bernardini, Gabriele; SPALAZZI, Luca; D'ORAZIO, Marco; Smari, Waleed
Editore: Springer International Publishing
Luogo di pubblicazione: Munich
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Semantic technologies can play a key role in representing, storing, interconnecting, searching, and organizing information generated/consumed by things. In order to evaluate its feasibility, this paper presents a set of reasoning mechanisms based on an IoT ontology to be applied in an emergency management scenario. The scenario presented in this paper consists in the earthquake emergency management.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/228808 Collegamento a IRIS

2014
Multi-Agent Simulation Model for Evacuation of Care Homes and Hospitals for Elderly and People with Disabilities in Motion
Ambient Assisted Living - Italian Forum 2013
Autore/i: D’ORAZIO M.; SPALAZZI L.; QUAGLIARINI E.; BERNARDINI G.
Editore: Springer International Publishing
Luogo di pubblicazione: Cham
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: The progressive population aging provokes an increase of importance in safety aspects for the elderly and the people with disabilities that are housed in care homes and hospitals. Current regulations denote an inadequate approach to safety problems connected to possible evacuation due to events like earthquakes, floods, fires. The law approach implicates that patients are directly carried out by health workers assistants in evacuation. However, many patients can autonomously evacuate, helped by specific facilities for way finding and not assisted by the medical staff. Our research is intended to design “guidance” system for these categories, and to inquiry how these facilities interact with people and influence their motion. The understanding and the simulation of behaviors of this category become essential in order to reach these goal.. This work proposes a multi-agent model for evacuation simulation, based on the Social Force motion approach and on experimental data. This paper focuses on joining group behaviors for autonomous elderly. The validation concerns various quantities describing group motion phenomena. The model will be integrated including aspects connected with eventual disabilities in motion for patients.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/217316 Collegamento a IRIS

2014
A tool for earthquake risk assessment definition including human behavioral aspects: EPES - Earthquake Pedestrians Evacuation Simulator
Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Protection of Historical Constructions
Autore/i: D’ORAZIO M.; QUAGLIARINI E.; BERNARDINI G.; SPALAZZI L.
Editore: Boğaziçi University Publishing
Luogo di pubblicazione: Istanbul
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: The earthquake risk assessment at urban scale does not consider human behaviors during both earthquake and evacuation phases. However, understanding interactions between people and post-event environment becomes essential in determining how behaviors influence inhabitants’ safety levels. This study follows this approach and proposes an agent-based earthquake pedestrians evacuation simulator. Real events analysis allows to define phases and rules in pedestrians evacuation; the social force model and a multi-agent architecture are used in order to develop a simulator. Consequently, the software EPES (Earthquake Pedestrians Evacuation Simulator) is implemented. Results firstly show the noticed behaviors discussion, posing attention on evacuation paths choice; interactions between man and environment are defined. Additionally, first software simulation validation about motion speed in evacuations and path choice are offered. EPES is proposed for evaluating probable pedestrians’ choices in different scenarios, and checking solutions for reduction of interferences between the environment and the evacuation process.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/217315 Collegamento a IRIS

2014
An experimental study on the correlation between ‘attachment to belongings’ and ‘pre-movement’ time”
Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012
Autore/i: D’Orazio M.; Bernardini G.
Editore: Springer Verlag Germany:Tiergartenstrasse 17, D 69121 Heidelberg Germany:011 49 6221 3450, EMAIL: g.braun@springer.de, INTERNET: http://www.springer.de, Fax: 011 49 6221 345229
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/147706 Collegamento a IRIS




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