Enrico QUAGLIARINI

Pubblicazioni

Enrico QUAGLIARINI

 

282 pubblicazioni classificate nel seguente modo:

Nr. doc. Classificazioni
130 1 Contributo su Rivista
113 2 Contributo in Volume
27 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
6 7 Curatele
4 3 Libro
1 5 Altro
1 6 Brevetti
Anno
Risorse
Towards a Multi-risk Assessment of Open Spaces and Its Users: A Rapid Survey Form to Collect and Manage Risk Factors
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
Autore/i: Angelosanti, M.; Bernabei, L.; Russo, M.; D'Amico, A.; Cantatore, E.; Bernardini, G.; Fatiguso, F.; Salvalai, G.; Mochi, G.; Quagliarini, E.; Curra, E.
Editore: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: The Built Environment (BE) with its users is increasingly prone to SUdden-Onset Disasters (SUODs), such as earthquakes and terrorist attacks, and SLow-Onset Disasters (SLODs), such as those related to pollutions and heatwaves. In this regard, historical centers represent vulnerable contexts due to their morphological complexity, construction peculiarities, and user-related characteristics. Therefore, risk assessment studies emphasize the importance of characterizing the BE from a holistic perspective to identify risk factors that interfere with disaster response. In particular, Open Spaces (OSs) (e.g., streets, squares) play a key role in increasing the overall BE resilience as elements that ensure the safety of BE users in emergency phases. This research is aimed at providing a quick OSs survey form to collect and manage the main risk factors according to a multi-risk approach. The form focuses on the critical users-BE interactions due to the OSs modifications during disasters and has been applied to 8 case studies in Italian historical city centers. Results show how the form can assess the OSs complexity and trace the main morphological, constructive, use-related, and context risk factors affecting the safety of OSs and their users. Promoted in the context of the Italian research project (PRIN) BE S2ECURe, the research succeeds in defining a quick methodology for risk factors collection, which can also support planners and local administrations in promoting effective mitigation strategies.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/292669 Collegamento a IRIS

Leaving or Sheltering? a Simulation-Based Comparison of Flood Evacuation Strategies in Urban Built Environments
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
Autore/i: Quagliarini, E.; Romano, G.; Bernardini, G.; D'Orazio, M.
Editore: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: When sudden-onset disasters occur in the urban Built Environment (BE), people must quickly leave the dangerous areas to reach safety. Floods in urban BEs surely represent a critical emergency, especially considering users who cannot evacuate upstairs, such as those placed outdoor. Management strategies focused on the evacuation planning could increase the users’ safety in a flexible but effective manner. This study compares two evacuation strategies in typological BEs through a simulation-based methodology based on the evacuation process analysis. The first strategy considers that users leave the BE, thus moving away from the source of danger flood. The second strategy adopts gathering areas positioned where the risk is lower, thus sheltering-in-place for the BE users. These strategies are tested considering fluvial flood conditions in four typological BEs, characterized by different layout in terms of streets and squares positions. The simulation-based methodology represents pedestrian evacuation under the two considered strategies depending on the hydrodynamic conditions of the BEs. Comparisons between evacuation time, flows, path length and the users’ risk depending on floodwater conditions (in terms of depth and speed) are provided. Results show that sheltering strategies can increase the users’ safety in each typological BEs, and mainly in case of the proximity between the square and the river. For instance, the users’ risk is generally reduced up to − 70%. These findings suggest that effective interventions should be designed to support the users toward “sheltering” areas, by increasing they awareness on the evacuation plan, and implementing wayfinding signs and raised platforms in the BE.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/292670 Collegamento a IRIS

Merging Heat Stress Hazard and Crowding Features to Frame Risk Scenarios Within the Urban Built Environment
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
Autore/i: Cadena, J. D. B.; Salvalai, G.; Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.
Editore: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Risk assessment for SLow Onset Disasters (SLODs) in the built environment combine the hazard features, and its effects on the built environment itself, with users’ exposure and vulnerability, including behavioral issues. Although different methods exist for identifying the main SLODs drivers and their trend over time and space, limited information is found to set up significant risk scenarios by effectively merging hazard and crowding’ features. Hence, this research is aimed at testing a methodology to create relevant risk scenarios for a single SLOD type, in the urban built environment. The work focuses on heat stress because of its growing incidence trend in urban areas. The methodology is applied to a neighborhood portion in Milan, Italy, which is a significant urban scenario for the considered SLOD. Through the application of quick and remote data collection methodologies, preliminary risk levels are traced over the daytime merging hazard and exposure, thus enabling a quick methodology application by practitioners. Results organize extreme and recurring risk scenarios considering relevant users’ types and behavioral patterns in respect to both the neighborhood space use and the heat stress arousal. Such scenarios can contribute to the definition of input conditions for simulation-based risk assessment.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/292671 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Morphological Systems of Open Spaces in Built Environment Prone to Sudden-Onset Disasters
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
Autore/i: Russo, Martina; Angelosanti, Marco; Bernardini, Gabriele; Cantatore, Elena; D'Amico, Alessandro; Currà, Edoardo; Fatiguso, Fabio; Mochi, Giovanni; Quagliarini, Enrico
Editore: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Recent events have shown how the Built Environment (BE), defined as a network of buildings, infrastructures, and open spaces, and its users are more and more prone to disasters, showing very poor resilience. The chapter focuses on the state of the art concerning the relation between BE and SUdden-Onset Disasters (SUOD) considering risks and human behavior. Results concerning the characterization of BE prone to SUODs underline the primary importance of open spaces in the Built Environment, as elements to characterize in respect to the possible emergency phases and the behavior of the BEs users. Attention is given to the BE constituting the base elements for urban areas (i.e., compact historic city) because of the related risk-affecting specific conditions (i.e., crowding, the complexity of overall BEs form, built element features, BEs uses). Moving from different open spaces types classification, the chapter defines morphological classes of BE representative of the variables of urban systems that interact with the identified SUODs risks.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286263 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Risk Reduction Strategies against Terrorist Acts in Urban Built Environments: Towards Sustainable and Human-Centred Challenges
SUSTAINABILITY
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Fatiguso, Fabio; Lucesoli, Michele; Bernardini, Gabriele; Cantatore, Elena
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Terrorist impacts have been increasing over time in many countries, being one of the most significant threats for the Built Environment (BE), intended as a network of open spaces (streets, squares) and facing buildings, and their users. Such risk is affected by a combination of strategic functions and crowd conditions. This work traces, for the first time, the state-of-the-art consolidated Risk Mitigation and Reduction Strategies (RMRSs). Solid RMRS regulatory frameworks from all over the world are collected. The results show how classification criteria distinguish them by attack targets and typologies, effectiveness over time/space, and physical implementation versus management-based deployment. Nevertheless, these criteria seem to be too fragmented, failing in pursuing RMRSs selection in a holistic outlook. Thus, a new classification adopting the BE composing elements (physical elements, layout, access/surveillance systems, safety/security management) as key-factors is provided. Features, dependencies and coordination among them are discussed in a sustainability-based perspective, by showing how the main challenges for RMRSs’ design concern applicability, redundancy, and users’ emergency support. Safety/security management strategies have the overall highest sustainability level and play a pivotal role with respect to the other BE composing elements, which should be planned in reference to them. In addition, a human-centred approach (individuals’ interactions with BEs and RMRSs) will also be needed. These results will support efforts to include simulation-oriented approaches into RMRSs selection, effectiveness and feasibility analyses.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/287215 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
TRM reinforced tuff and fired clay brick masonry: Experimental and analytical investigation on their in-plane and out-of-plane behavior
CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
Autore/i: Donnini, J.; Maracchini, G.; Lenci, S.; Corinaldesi, V.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The paper presents the results of an experimental campaign aimed at investigating the in-plane and out-of-plane behavior of tuff and fired clay brick masonry panels reinforced by a commercial, not yet tested, Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) system. The TRM, consisting of hydraulic lime mortar coupled with a bidirectional glass fabric (total thickness of 30 mm), was applied on both sides of the panels and connected through stainless-steel helical bars. First, a mechanical characterization of the TRM system was carried out, according to recent guidelines (AC434 and CNR-DT215) by means of tensile tests and single-shear bond tests on the two different substrates. Then, the effectiveness of the reinforcement was investigated through uniaxial compression, diagonal compression and three-point bending tests on masonry panels. After that, experimental results were compared to the predictions of recent guidelines and analytical models available in the literature, by using the mechanical parameters obtained from the TRM mechanical characterization. TRM showed to be very effective in increasing the in-plane shear strength of tuff panels, of about 170%, whereas in the case of fired clay brick ones the increase was limited to 33%. Besides, the diagonal compression strength of reinforced specimens seemed to be strongly influenced by the mortar matrix, instead of by the fabric reinforcement, as it usually happens i.e. for Fabric Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM) systems. Thus, novel simplified analytical formulations to predict the shear strength of reinforced panels by only considering the contribution of the TRM matrix were provided, discussed and compared to current analytical approaches for FRCM systems. As regards the out-of-plane behavior, the TRM system significantly increased the out-of-plane bending strength and ductility of both tuff and fired clay brick panels. The applicability of current analytical approaches, as well as possible amendments, was also investigated. Finally, the compressive behavior of the walls was not substantially modified by the reinforcement, reasonably due to the low axial stiffness of the connectors and, to a minor extent, because they were dry inserted within the masonry and simply folded over the glass fabric.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/287962 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Understanding Human Behaviors in Earthquakes to Improve Safety in Built Environment: A State of the Art on Sustainable and Validated Investigation Tools
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
Autore/i: Quagliarini, E.; Lucesoli, M.; Bernardini, G.
Editore: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: The design of resilient Built Environments (BEs) against disasters should consider human behaviors in emergency conditions as a key factor. The disaster impact on BE can lead people to be potentially exposed to additional risks because of “wrong” behaviors adoption. This aspect is mainly relevant for sudden-onset events, characterized by unpredictability and quick arising of effects. In this sense, earthquakes represent critical events. Although civil defense bodies provide behavioral guidelines to reduce the number of injuries and victims in case of such disaster, individuals generally seem to not follow such rules due to their interactions among them and with the BE. Studying and predicting behaviors in the first emergency phases (i.e., evacuation) represent the first step in developing risk-mitigating solutions and improving users’ preparedness. This work provides a literary review of sustainable technologies to this end, to detect if and how they could be considered reliable tools to inquire about human behaviors. Two main available and consolidated sources are analyzed. Videotapes of real-world events are traditionally used to develop evacuation model. Recent works introduced Virtual Reality (VR)-based activities to replicate earthquake conditions in different BEs (including stimuli like smokes, ground shaking), analyze individuals’ reactions in immersive drills, and provide a “learn-by-doing” approach to tested people. Anyway, most of these VR approaches shows simplifications of possible users’ choices. Verifications of real-world-VR environment differences in behaviors are also needed. These novel tools will sensibly speed up researches in terms of time and quality by reducing costs and ensuring replicability if this limitation will be effectively overcome.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286250 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Occupants’ Behavioral Analysis for the Optimization of Building Operation and Maintenance: A Case Study to Improve the Use of Elevators in a University Building
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Di Giuseppe, E.; D'Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Editore: Springer, Singapore
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: The impact of the users’ behavior on the building performance is largely recognized, especially considering most of common building operation and management (O&M) tasks. Predictions of human-building interactions are essential to improve building efficiency by decreasing wastes and costs connected to O&M while satisfying the comfort level required by the occupants. At this regard, building technological systems, which status depends on the users’ movement inside the buildings, like elevators, represent one of the critical spots, especially in high-density buildings. According to a “user-centered” approach, this paper moves toward the assessment of behavioral drivers which can influence the use of elevators in public buildings to define a probability use model useful to set specific maintenance policies. In situ evaluations are performed in a university building, where flows of people are highly dependent on the indoor activities scheduled, as lessons. A multinomial logit model for the probability of elevators’ use is built depending on factors such as: floors number, movement in group, direction (upwards, downwards). Users’ fruition patterns in the university building are detected using eye-tracking techniques and questionnaires. Results show how the elevators’ use probability increases when the number of floors to cross increases, also because of perceived movement comfort, while individuals’ attention is mainly affected by posters and signage systems placed along the way. The model could be implemented in building simulation models, to predict the elevators use during the time under different circumstances, hence to optimize related O&M measures.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286248 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Human stability during floods: Experimental tests on a physical model simulating human body
SAFETY SCIENCE
Autore/i: Postacchini, M.; Bernardini, G.; D'Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Urban floods are becoming more and more intense and frequent allover the world. Extreme events are the main triggering factors of such floods, and merit attention for what concerns the urban planning and emergency strategies. Numerical models aimed at investigating the optimal paths for evacuees escaping a flooded urban environment may be used by local authorities to properly understand how to improve people safety and mitigate the flood risk. Implementation of empirical laws in such models to describe the people stability in flooded areas is thus crucial to understand the behavior of evacuees and rescuers during emergency conditions. Laboratory experiments have been undertaken using a physical model representing a human body at quasi-natural scale, towed by an electrical engine in the water at rest. This represents a novel laboratory approach which exploits a non-inertial reference frame in motion with the model. The experimental results, obtained using different combinations of water depth and flow speed, have led to empirical laws which outline the stability conditions occurring when either the model front or the model back faces the flow, these respectively corresponding to Backward Toppling Instability (BTI) and Forward Toppling Instability (FTI). Such laws have been found through comparison with reference literature works, using various statistical methods. The FTI condition has been seen to largely improve the human stability compared to BTI, in contrast to the results of previous literature works, which stated an overall similarity between the results of the two toppling conditions. To better understand the role of the water flow during the different tests, hydraulic forces and moments have been measured. It has been seen that dynamic and static effects are comparable during high-speed conditions, especially due to a relevant fluid-model interaction and an increase of the water-surface level, while dynamic effects are negligible during low-speed conditions. The results of the present contribution can represent an important step forward for the numerical models applied to the framework of urban and emergency planning.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/287664 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Cognitive Buildings for Increasing Elderly Fire Safety in Public Buildings: Design and First Evaluation of a Low-Impact Dynamic Wayfinding System
Ambient Assisted Living. ForItAAL 2019
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Ciabattoni, Lucio; Quagliarini, Enrico; D’Orazio, Marco
Editore: Springer
Luogo di pubblicazione: Cham
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: The progressive population ageing increases the participation of autonomous Elderly to the community life and their presence in public buildings. Such complex spaces are generally characterized by high occupants’ density, with different users’ types (including elderly) that additionally own a scarce familiarity with the emergency layout. Emergency safety levels (i.e.: fire) are significantly affected by man-environment interactions, especially for the hosted autonomous Elderly. Here, they tend to choose well-known paths, while group behaviours can provoke overcrowding and, hence, an increasing of the evacuation time. Cognitive Buildings can solve this issue, because they can suggest to people how to behave in relation to the monitored surrounding conditions. This study proposes a Cognitive Wayfinding System (Co-WayS) to be applied in such scenarios, with a low impact level. Co-Ways is composed by: individuals’ badges for their wi-fi tracking; building components including wi-fi tracking system and electrically-illumined signs (to dynamically address correct paths to evacuees); central processing unit to solve a density-based guidance algorithm for sign activation. Co-WaysS addresses the egress paths depending on monitored queueing conditions. A first validation in a significant public building is performed through egress drills. When using Co-WayS, the evacuation time decreases (−28%) while correct path choices (+17%) and individuals’ sign confidence (+58%) increases, with respect to standard signage.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/289489 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
A probabilistic model to evaluate the effectiveness of main solutions to COVID-19 spreading in university buildings according to proximity and time-based consolidated criteria
BUILDING SIMULATION
Autore/i: D’Orazio, Marco; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: University buildings are one of the most relevant closed environments in which the COVID-19 event clearly pointed out stakeholders’ needs toward safety issues, especially because of the possibility of day-to-day presences of the same users (i.e. students, teachers) and overcrowding causing long-lasting contacts with possible “infectors”. While waiting for the vaccine, as for other public buildings, policy-makers’ measures to limit virus outbreaks combine individual’s strategies (facial masks), occupants’ capacity and access control. But, up to now, no easy-to-apply tools are available for assessing the punctual effectiveness of such measures. To fill this gap, this work proposes a quick and probabilistic simulation model based on consolidated proximity and exposure-time-based rules for virus transmission confirmed by international health organizations. The building occupancy is defined according to university scheduling, identifying the main “attraction areas” in the building (classrooms, break-areas). Scenarios are defined in terms of occupants’ densities and the above-mentioned mitigation strategies. The model is calibrated on experimental data and applied to a relevant university building. Results demonstrate the model capabilities. In particular, it underlines that if such strategies are not combined, the virus spreading can be limited by only using high protection respiratory devices (i.e. FFP3) by almost every occupant. On the contrary, the combination between access control and building capacity limitation can lead to the adoption of lighter protective devices (i.e. surgical masks), thus improving the feasibility, users’ comfort and favorable reception. Simplified rules to combine acceptable mask filters-occupants’ density are thus provided to help stakeholders in organizing users’ presences in the building during the pandemic.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/288226 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
How to create seismic risk scenarios in historic built environment using rapid data collection and managing
JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
Autore/i: Quagliarini, E.; Lucesoli, M.; Bernardini, G.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The Historic Built Environment (HBE) is constantly prone to natural disasters because of its complexity. Resilience-increasing strategies in such a context should both preserve the cultural heritage and make the hosted communities safe. Earthquakes represent critical disasters because of the interactions between HBE elements (i.e.: buildings, open spaces, urban paths) and its inhabitants. Thus, the practical development of emergency plans and related risk reduction strategies should consider the induced effects of the earthquake on the HBE and the spatiotemporal variation in the number of exposed people. This goal needs propaedeutic methods to define relevant scenarios in view of the possible characterization of risk-related factors at the HBE scale. To this aim, this contribution tries to arrange a first sustainable, holistic, easy-to-use, and replicable framework. The paper innovatively provides planners with a unique scheme to reach available data from reliable sources concerning seismic hazard, vulnerability and damage, and exposure (i.e. related to human lives quantification). Results on a case-study application (a typical Italian HBE) demonstrate the framework capabilities, by including the critical HBE damage-related conditions and crowding phenomena (in a multi-hazard perspective, based on the probable number and typologies of exposed individuals). Then, specific solutions can be advanced. The proposed holistic framework can be easily replicable and adaptable due to the possibility to update the employed tools as well as to replace them with other existing and validated ones, giving the same inquired parameters as results. The methodological framework could constitute an effective support for risk scenarios creation at the HBE scale to be used in risk-assessment and emergency plans actions (e.g. basing on typological analyses on buildings/urban tissue, and simulation-based studies including individuals' behaviours in emergency and evacuation) by guaranteeing rapid data collection activities.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/289062 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
How urban layout and pedestrian evacuation behaviours can influence flood risk assessment in riverine historic built environments
SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND SOCIETY
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Romano, Guido; Soldini, Luciano; Quagliarini, Enrico
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Riverine Historic Built Environments (HBEs) in urban centres are relevant scenarios for flood risk, due to the compact layout of their outdoor spaces, that are squares and streets, and their position in flood-prone areas. Differences in HBE layout can provide differences in flood risks, but excluding the response of exposed individuals can lead to risk underestimation or overestimation, as for other hazards. This work is a first attempt to compare how accounting or not pedestrian evacuation behaviours can affect flood risk assessment and emergency strategies evaluation. Parametric configurations of typical HBEs are provided on case-studies, and existing tools for hydrodynamic and pedestrian evacuation simulation are applied to them. Risk indexes for the whole HBE (macroscale) and each of its outdoor space (microscale) in it are provided. Results show how the risk indexes trends accounting or not pedestrian evacuation behaviours at the macroscale are similar, while differences at the microscale exist (about 15% in absolute terms). Concerning emergency strategies, sheltering seems to decrease the risk for the whole HBE up to 33% in comparison to leaving the flood-affected area. Results also support where/how to place gathering areas in the HBE.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/291492 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Terrorist acts and pedestrians’ behaviours: First insights on European contexts for evacuation modelling
SAFETY SCIENCE
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Europe has been subject to a significant increase in terrorist acts and their impact in recent years. In this context, real-world events pointed out how the pedestrians’ safety is significantly affected by the attacks and their consequences on the Built Environment. As already done for other Sudden-onset disasters, evacuation behaviours should be investigated to properly define risk-mitigation strategies, thus considering the impacts of main factors such as attack type, crowd level, pedestrians’ typologies, built environment conditions. This work tries to fill these literature gaps by innovatively proposing a behavioural database for terrorist acts according to consolidated methods. Firstly, videotapes of recent terrorist acts all over Europe are collected. Qualitative analyses reveal which behaviours are common with other kinds of emergencies and which seem to be more frequent, while quantitative analyses provide first structured data to simulate the pedestrians' evacuation, such as speeds and fundamental diagrams of pedestrians' dynamics. Comparisons with existing databases concerning other disasters are provided. Results highlight differences between behavioural outputs of qualitative and quantitative variables considering terrorist acts and other evacuation types. Thus, provided data could be used as input for developing and testing evacuation models in the contexts of terrorist acts.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/291498 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Assessing the flood risk to evacuees in outdoor built environments and relative risk reduction strategies
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Finizio, F.; Postacchini, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Climate-change induced disasters, like floods, are expected to increase in the future. In outdoor built environments, flood risk to evacuees depends on interactions between floodwater spreading, built environment features, flood-induced modifications, and individuals’ reaction in emergency phases. Disaster risk reduction strategies should mitigate the immediate flood impacts and improve the community resilience, while being easy-to-implement and effectively supporting evacuees during the initial phases of the emergency. Simulation-based methodologies could support safety planners in evaluating the effectiveness of such strategies, especially if basing on a micro-scale-oriented approach that represents emergency interactions between each individual and the surrounding outdoor built environment. This study adopts an existing micro-scale simulator (FlooPEDS) reproducing experimental-based flood evacuation behaviours. According to a behavioural design-based approach, simulation results focus on individual responses in the outdoor built environment through Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) aimed at providing evidence of critical interactions between evacuees, floodwaters and the outdoor built environment. A case study is selected by considering different flood scenarios to test such KPIs. Risk reduction solutions are then provided, and their effectiveness is checked by simulations. Results show the micro-scale and behavioural design-based approach capabilities in proposing multi-scenarios solutions (e.g.: architectural elements to support evacuees; emergency planning).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/291669 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Sustainable and resilient strategies for touristic cities against COVID-19: An agent-based approach
SAFETY SCIENCE
Autore/i: D'Orazio, M.; Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Touristic cities will suffer from COVID-19 emergency because of its economic impact on their communities. The first emergency phases involved a wide closure of such areas to support “social distancing” measures (i.e. travels limitation; lockdown of (over)crowd-prone activities). In the “second phase”, individual's risk-mitigation strategies (facial masks) could be properly linked to “social distancing” to ensure re-opening touristic cities to visitors. Simulation tools could support the effectiveness evaluation of risk-mitigation measures to look for an economic and social optimum for activities restarting. This work modifies an existing Agent-Based Model to estimate the virus spreading in touristic areas, including tourists and residents’ behaviours, movement and virus effects on them according to a probabilistic approach. Consolidated proximity-based and exposure-time-based contagion spreading rules are included according to international health organizations and previous calibration through experimental data. Effects of tourists’ capacity (as “social distancing”-based measure) and other strategies (i.e. facial mask implementation) are evaluated depending on virus-related conditions (i.e. initial infector percentages). An idealized scenario representing a significant case study has been analysed to demonstrate the tool capabilities and compare the effectiveness of those solutions. Results show that “social distancing” seems to be more effective at the highest infectors’ rates, although represents an extreme measure with important economic effects. This measure loses its full effectiveness (on the community) as the infectors’ rate decreases and individuals’ protection measures become predominant (facial masks). The model could be integrated to consider other recurring issues on tourist-related fruition and schedule of urban spaces and facilities (e.g. cultural/leisure buildings).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/291493 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Built environment typologies prone to risk: A cluster analysis of open spaces in Italian cities
SUSTAINABILITY
Autore/i: D'Amico, Alessandro; Russo, Martina; Angelosanti, Marco; Bernardini, Gabriele; Vicari, Donatella; Quagliarini, Enrico; Curra, Edoardo
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Planning for preparedness, in terms of multi-hazard disasters, involves testing the relevant abilities to mitigate damage and build resilience, through the assessment of deterministic disaster scenarios. Among risk-prone assets, open spaces (OSs) play a significant role in the characterization of the built environment (BE) and represent the relevant urban portion on which to develop multi-risk scenarios. The aim of this paper is to elaborate ideal scenarios—namely, building environment typologies (BETs)—for simulation-based risk assessment actions, considering the safety and resilience of BEs in emergency conditions. The investigation is conducted through the GIS data collection of the common characteristics of OSs (i.e., squares), identified through five parameters considered significant in the scientific literature. These data were processed through a non-hierar-chical cluster analysis. The results of the cluster analysis identified five groups of OSs, characterized by specific morphological, functional, and physical characteristics. Combining the outcomes of the cluster analysis with a critical analysis, nine final BETs were identified. The resulting BETs were linked to characteristic risk combinations, according to the analysed parameters. Thus, the multi-risk scenarios identified through the statistical analysis lay the basis for future risk assessments of BEs, based on the peculiar characteristics of Italian towns.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/292089 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Nuove tecnologie progettuali per il riuso e la riqualificazione sostenibili di ambienti ipogei di valore culturale
Colloqui.AT.e 2020. Hew Horizons for Sustainable Architecture (Nuovi orizzonti per l'architettura sostenibile)
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; Lucesoli, Michele; Gregorini, Benedetta; D'Orazio, Marco
Editore: Edicom edizioni
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286267 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Sustainable fruition as a preventive conservation strategy for hypogeum artefacts
JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
Autore/i: D'Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.; Bernardini, G.; Gregorini, B.; Gianangeli, A.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: As well as valuable Building Heritage, hypogeum scenarios often host artefacts such as i.e. graffiti, paintings or low reliefs, but differently to them, they are characterized by very particular microclimatic conditions due to their isolation from the outdoor environment. This way, they are very susceptible to human impact due to visitors’ fruition that can cause or accelerate degradation processes. Strategies for preventive conservation of Cultural Heritage should balance Heritage conservation (i.e. building materials and surfaces, hosted goods and chattels) and public access (i.e. visitors’ fruition). In these scenarios, preventive conservation strategies are based on the definition of both interventions on technical installations (to restore or improve indoor environment conditions) and operative models for sustainable fruition (to diminish the impact of stressors on the Heritage). Combining such strategies is not viable in hypogeum environments, which can be hardly equipped by technical systems. To face with such issues, this work proposes a novel strategy for Heritage conservation inside hypogeum environments based on the joint combination between environment microclimatic characterization and visitors’ impact definition. The proposed strategy has been developed and tested on a significant case of study: Palazzo Campana's hypogeum (Osimo, Italy). This hypogeum is a typical example of man-made underground structure characterized by sandstone walls carved in artistic value high-reliefs. Currently, its walls have been becoming very friable and subsequently their surfaces have been exposing to harsh deterioration phenomena. The strategy firstly includes indoor temperature and relative humidity long-term monitoring by means of a real-time widespread sensors system, so as to evaluate microclimatic conditions and its admissible gradients. A novel visitors’ admissible impact is defined on these data, by considering visiting time and numbers of visitors so as to not alter the indoor climate conditions. Visitors’ access tests are then carried out to confirm the proposed visitors’ admissible impact. Results demonstrate the capability of the proposed combined strategies and the possible extension to other Heritage scenarios to reduce the impact of direct interventions and improve preservation aspects.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286264 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Human behaviours and BE investigations to preserve the heritage against SUOD disasters
HERITAGE 2020. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Heritage and Sustainable Development.
Autore/i: Bernabei, Letizia; Mochi, Giovanni; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico; Cantatore, Elena; Fatiguso, Fabio; Angelosanti, Marcom; Currà, Edoardo; D'Amico, Alessandro; Russo, Martina
Editore: Green Lines Institute for Sustainable Development
Luogo di pubblicazione: Barcelos
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286265 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Architectural Heritage and Earthquakes: a semeiotic method to assess building aggregates vulnerability in historical city centres
HERITAGE 2020. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Heritage and Sustainable Development.
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; Lucesoli, Michele
Editore: Green Lines Institute for Sustainable Development
Luogo di pubblicazione: Barcelos
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286266 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Teatri storici all’italiana e rischio incendio: soluzioni intelligenti e non invasive per il progetto
ANANKE
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; D'Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/288306 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
How to account for the human motion to improve flood risk assessment in Urban areas
WATER
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Floods are critical disasters affecting urban areas and their users. Interactions with floodwater spreading and built environment features influence the users' reaction to the emergency, especially during immediate disaster phases (i.e., evacuation). Recent studies tried to define simulation models to evaluate such exposure-related criticalities, assess individuals' flood risk, and propose risk-mitigation strategies aimed at supporting the community's proper response. Although they generally include safety issues (e.g., human body stability), such tools usually adopt a simplified approach to individuals' motion representation in floodwaters, i.e., using input from non-specialized databases and models. This study provides general modelling approaches to estimate evacuation speed variations depending on individual's excitement (walking, running), floodwaters depths and individuals' features (age, gender, height, average speed on dry surfaces). The proposed models prefer a normalized evacuation speeds approach in respect of minimum motion constraint conditions to extend their applicability depending on the individuals' characteristics. Speed data from previous experiments are organized using linear regression models. Results confirm how individuals' speed reduces when depth and age increase. The most significant models are discussed to be implemented in evacuation simulation models to describe the evacuees' motion in floodwaters with different confidence degree levels and then assess the community's flood risk and risk-reduction strategies effectiveness.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286253 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Sustainable planning of seismic emergency in historic centres through semeiotic tools: Comparison of different existing methods through real case studies
SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND SOCIETY
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Lucesoli, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Sustainable cities have to constantly face natural catastrophes, and planning actions should be oriented to quickly manage emergency conditions. Earthquake represents one of the most critical disasters. Earthquake-induced built environment modifications (i.e. building debris) affect the urban paths network availability. Historic centres are relevant scenarios because of their specific features (i.e. Heritage vulnerability; complex and compact fabric). Predicting which paths could be used by rescuers to rapidly reach damaged inhabitants could reduce losses and improve first aid actions. Sustainable semeiotic tools are proposed to quickly esteem the paths availability combining street geometrical features and building damages. Currently, no study provides insights on methods reliability. Hence, this work critically analyses methods outcomes by implementing them, for the first time, on the same real-world sample (Italian historic centres). Rapid tools (satellite images, photographic documentation) are used to compare methods previsions with effective post-earthquake paths availability. Pros and cons of each analysed method are evidenced, underlining that the approach that combines street-building geometry, building vulnerability and earthquake severity seems to give the best results. This could help Local Authorities and Civil Protection Bodies in better developing risk-mitigation strategies concerning, e.g., emergency management (rescuers’ access routes definition) and urban planning (building retrofitting interventions).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276196 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Towards the simulation of flood evacuation in urban scenarios: Experiments to estimate human motion speed in floodwaters
SAFETY SCIENCE
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.; D'Orazio, M.; Brocchini, M.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Studies on flood risk assessment at urban scale are becoming increasingly oriented towards the use of evacuation simulation models for population's safety. However, such tools generally simplify human dynamics in floodwater conditions and need data to quantify proper individual's speed. Novel information on the above dynamics is here presented. A group of over 200 volunteers has been engaged in evacuation laboratory experiments carried out into an open channel. Results allow to estimate the pedestrian's isolated motion speed as a function of depth D [m] (in the range 20–70 cm) of floodwater, in both “walking” and “running” conditions. To this aim, experiments were carried out in still water. For each walking conditions and floodwater depth, correlations have been obtained between evacuation speed and age, individuals’ height, mass and body mass index. The existence of significant motion speed differences, depending on D, is underlined. In addition, general trends in evacuation speed reduction depending on the specific flood force per unit width M have been investigated and confirmed. It is also clarified how human physiology and kinematics (i.e. knee articulation) can induce specific speed-affecting effects depending on D. Such quantitative differences in motion discourage the use of fire or general-purpose databases for flood simulations, while such experimental data could be used as input for evacuation models to describe different evacuees’ walking types in evacuation procedure.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276195 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Combining conservation and visitors’ fruition for sustainable building heritage use: Application to a hypogeum
Sustainability in Energy and Buildings. Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies
Autore/i: Gregorini, B.; Lucesoli, M.; Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.; D'Orazio, M.
Editore: Springer
Luogo di pubblicazione: Singapore
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: The exploitation of Building Heritage generally leads to sustainability issues in terms of environmental preservation and tourist enjoyment. When these requirements are not jointly respected, occupancy issues can provoke degradation phenomena on indoor environment (i.e., building materials and surfaces with artistic and historical value) or conditions of discomfort during visitors’ fruition. Hence, our research defines a combined strategy to solve at the same time both the issues: guaranteeing the conservation of Building Heritage (and its artefacts) while ensuring optimal visitors’ fruition tasks. The Building Heritage conservation is pursued by a monitoring campaign of ideal (undisturbed) indoor conditions and by the evaluation of the human presence effect considering thermal loads as main driver. The visitors’ fruition is analyzed by assessing individuals’ behavioral patterns in terms of attention given to the hosted artifacts (where and how the visitors’ attention is posed?), through a wearable eye tracking system. The strategy is applied to a hypogeum environment characterized by high reliefs on walls and vaults. This scenario is considered since its isolated hygrothermal conditions are strongly influenced by human presence. Results showed that the environmental preservation is reached when considering the fruition model proposed by the stakeholder. Furthermore, the eye tracking analysis revealed high-level of visitors’ engagement towards significant spaces only when exposed to adequate lighting conditions and/or in a good conservation state.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/278020 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
A cognitive approach for improving built environment and users’ safety in emergency conditions,
TEMA
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Santarelli, S.; D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Cognitive Systems can be applied in architectural spaces to improve Built Environment performances basing on users’ needs. They can: 1) jointly monitor environmental conditions and human behaviours through Cognitive Built Environment (CBE) components; 2) use human-environment interaction models and related Key Performance Indicators to detect critical situations; 3) adapt CBE devices status to inform users on how to properly behave. This approach is applied to safety performances of outdoor (earthquake) and indoor (fire) scenarios, by proposing and testing solutions to support evacuees while reaching safe areas and rescuers’ support.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268588 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Emergenza alluvione nei centri urbani: un approccio behavioral design-based per la mitigazione del rischio
Colloqui.AT.e 2019. Ingegno e costruzione nell’epoca della complessità
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Lucesoli, Michele; Quagliarini, Enrico
Editore: Ed I. Torino: Politecnico di Torino
Luogo di pubblicazione: Torino
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/270979 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
How knowing people behaviour in disaster events could improve risk analysis, disaster prevention and post-disaster mitigation in historic centres
Rehab 2019 – Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Preservation, Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings and Structures
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele
Editore: Green Lines Institute
Luogo di pubblicazione: Barcelos
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/270981 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Il castello di Roccamandolfi tra conservazione e innovazione
Colloqui.AT.e 2019. Ingegno e costruzione nell’epoca della complessità
Autore/i: Monni, Francesco; Quagliarini, Enrico; Mondaini, Gianluigi; Cardamone, Alessandra; Della Sciucca, Chiara; Pagliardini, Ilaria
Editore: Ed I. Torino: Politecnico di Torino
Luogo di pubblicazione: Torino
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/270978 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
NANO-MATERIALI PER LA CONSERVAZIONE DELLE SUPERFICI STORICHE
ANANKE
Autore/i: Quagliarini, E.; Graziani, L.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Historic and architectural surfaces conservation is considered a more and more strategic way not only for cultural reasons, but also for positive economic and social consequences. Traditional techniques of interventions often require re-application after some years and they can be carefully used in many cases. Recent researches have tried to transfer nanotechnologies to the restoration sector so as to fill this gap. Nano-coatings, in particular with titanium dioxide (TiO2), is more and more used, because they seem to be able to keep historic architectural surfaces self-cleaned and to prevent biofouling. Thus, in this paper, TiO2 potential use on common historic materials like sandstone, limestone and tuff is presented by underlying pros and cons after laboratory-simulated tests. Results show the high potentiality of this nanomaterial for the conservation of historic surfaces by also maintaining their original visual appearance. However, particular care has to be paid when historic surfaces are highly porous and rough. This, in fact, can limit the efficiency of the TiO2-nanocoating
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/272113 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Diagnostic survey on frescoes paintings in Pompei by active Ir-thermography
IMEKO International Conference on Metrology for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, MetroArchaeo 2017
Autore/i: Castellini, P.; Martarelli, M.; Lenci, S.; Quagliarini, E.; Silani, M.; Martellone, A.
Editore: International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO)
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/272664 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Sustainable Engineering for Resilient Built and Natural Environments
The First Outstanding 50 Years of “Università Politecnica delle Marche”
Autore/i: Alici, Antonello; Bocci, Maurizio; Bonvini, Paolo; Brocchini, Maurizio; Calamai, Alessandro; Canestrari, Francesco; Capozucca, Roberto; Carbonari, Alessandro; Carbonari, Sandro; Cardone, Fabrizio; Clementi, Francesco; Clini, Paolo; Cocchi, Giammichele; Corvaro, Sara; Darvini, Giovanna; Davì, Fabrizio; Dezi, Luigino; Di Giuseppe, Elisa; D’Orazio, Marco; Ferretti, Maddalena; Ferrotti, Gilda; Gara, Fabrizio; Giretti, Alberto; Graziani, Andrea; Lancioni, Giovanni; Lemma, Massimo; Lenci, Stefano; Lorenzoni, Carlo; Malinverni, Eva Savina; Mancinelli, Alessandro; Mariano, Fabio; Mentrasti, Lando; Mondaini, Gianluigi; Montecchiari, Piero; Munafò, Placido; Naticchia, Berardo; Postacchini, Matteo; Quagliarini, Enrico; Quattrini, Ramona; Ragni, Laura; Serpilli, Michele; Soldini, Luciano; Virgili, Amedeo; Zampini, Giovanni
Editore: Springer
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/272866 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Rethinking Buildings Design, Construction and Management Through Sustainable Technologies and Digitization
The First Outstanding 50 Years of “Università Politecnica delle Marche”
Autore/i: Carbonari, Alessandro; Di Giuseppe, Elisa; D’Orazio, Marco; Giretti, Alberto; Lemma, Massimo; Munafò, Placido; Naticchia, Berardo; Quagliarini, Enrico; Stazi, Francesca; Vaccarini, Massimo
Editore: Springer
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/272867 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Seismic risk analysis for disaster prevention in historic centres: a novel methodology for assessing evacuation paths safety.
Rehab 2019 – Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Preservation, Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings and Structures
Autore/i: Lucesoli, Michele; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico
Editore: Green Lines Institute
Luogo di pubblicazione: Barcelos
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/270980 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Proposing behavior-oriented strategies for earthquake emergency evacuation: A behavioral data analysis from New Zealand, Italy and Japan
SAFETY SCIENCE
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Lovreglio, R.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Individuals’ safety in an earthquake highly depends on human reactions and emergency behaviours, especially in first evacuation phases and in urban scenarios. To increase community resilience, Civil Defense Bodies in several earthquake prone countries have defined a list of recommended behaviours to take during and after an earthquake. Following those recommended behaviours could avoid exposing people to additional risks and allow them to reach an effective help from rescuers. Nevertheless, previous studies suggested that differences between recommended behaviors and real-life actions exist and increase the probabilities of casualties. Hence, solutions to assist communities in reducing the occurrence of such “unsafe” phenomena are needed. In this work, we adopt a behavioral approach to examine spontaneous real-life behaviours observed through a database of videotapes of earthquakes from New Zealand, Italy, and Japan. The presence of response actions recommended by Civil Defense Bodies of those three Countries is also assessed. Observed behaviors are organized according to evacuation phases, and comparisons between the three Countries results are provided. An uncertainty assessment is performed to investigate the sample size impact on the proposed analysis. Finally, behavioral results are employed to trace possible valuable solutions aimed at increasing community resilience and individuals’ safety, by limiting the impact of hazardous spontaneous behaviors and providing an effective support to evacuees’ decisions as well as possible. Main solutions categories include assistance tools (e.g.: building components, individual devices), educational training (e.g.: by using serious games), evacuation plans according to the probable evacuation process
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268471 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Flooding Pedestrians’ Evacuation in Historical Urban Scenario: A Tool for Risk Assessment Including Human Behaviors
RILEM Bookseries
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Postacchini, Matteo; Quagliarini, Enrico; D’Orazio, Marco; Brocchini, Maurizio
Editore: Springer Netherlands
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: In the future, safety in historical city centers will be significantly affected by climate change-related disasters, such as floods. Risk assessment in these scenarios requires the combination of a series of factors: possible events characterization; urban layout configuration, its influence on flooding spreading and induced environmental modification; human factor, especially during first emergency phases. Historic urban scenario features (e.g.: compact urban fabrics; position near floodplains; possible inefficient early warning systems) additionally increase individuals’ risks. According to a “behavioral design” approach, developing flood evacuation simulation tools would help safety designers in assessing population’s exposure and then in suggesting emergency strategies to help citizens during such hazardous phases. This paper proposes a flooding evacuation simulation tool, which jointly represents the individuals’ evacuation motion towards safe areas, and the floodwaters spreading in the urban scenario. In particular, the simulator is founded on previous literature results concerning emergency behaviors and motion quantities (e.g.: evacuation speed as function of floodwaters flow) and adopts an agent-based model architecture. A part of the historic city center of Senigallia, an Italian city that suffered a significant flood in 2014, is chosen as application case-study to show tool capabilities. Results outline risk levels for individuals, and evidence critical points (in the urban space and during the time) for man-floodwaters-environment interactions (e.g.: being swept away by floodwaters). By evaluating probable evacuees’ choices in different scenarios, the tool is proposed to check the effectiveness of solutions for reducing evacuation process risks (e.g.: emergency planning; architectural elements development; interventions for floodwaters collection also in urban scenarios).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/263425 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Can textile reinforced mortar (TRM) systems be really effective to increase compressive strength of masonry panels?
Key Engineering Materials
Autore/i: Donnini, J.; Maracchini, G.; Chiappini, G.; Corinaldesi, V.; Quagliarini, E.; Lenci, S.
Editore: Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: The use of Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) systems represent a valid alternative to traditional strengthening techniques, to improve mechanical strength and seismic performance of masonry buildings. Their effectiveness has been validated by several studies [1-4]. However, the TRM contribution in the mechanical behavior of masonry walls, subjected to simple compression, has not yet been fully investigated. In this study, an experimental campaign with the objective of studying the efficiency of TRM systems, applied to clay brick masonry panels, is presented. Compression tests were conducted on clay brick masonry panels with dimensions of 250x1000x1200 mm3 . Glass fiber bidirectional fabrics were applied on both sides of the panels, coupled with lime-based mortar, and connected with stainless steel helical connectors. The total thickness of the reinforcement system is 30 mm. The effect of the TRM reinforcement on the mechanical behavior of the panel is analyzed and experimental results are compared with those of unreinforced panels in terms of ultimate strength and failure modes.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/270983 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Diagnosis and structural assessment of the assumption of the virgin mary chapel in Prague (CZ)
Key Engineering Materials
Autore/i: Monni, F.; Quagliarini, E.; Di Nisio, R.; Benedetti, A.
Editore: Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: This paper illustrates the results of the analysis and the structural assessment of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary chapel, in Prague. The chapel, an oval-shaped building covered with a dome, was built at the end of the 16th century and can be considered the last example of renaissance architecture and, at the same time, the first example of baroque architecture in Prague: it is a significant testimony of the close connection between local artists and their Italian teachers. The building has been closed to visitors during the last decades for the presence of some structural damages and because it was severely degraded due to lack of maintenance. It was reopened in 2017 after a notable restoration process. This paper pays attention to the interdisciplinary approach used for structural assessment of the chapel, that is based on the activities of the “knowledge path,” the subsequent structural analysis and the intervention design. Particular attention was paid to the contribution of the historical review, geometric laser scanner survey and mechanical characterization of the structural materials. All these steps are necessary to identify potential vulnerabilities and to enable the understanding of the effective structural models, also in view of proposing adequate retrofit solutions. A numerical model of the chapel was prepared and calibrated. Finally, the structural assessment for static and seismic condition was performed.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/270982 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Effect of temperature and relative humidity on algae biofouling on different fired brick surfaces
CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
Autore/i: Quagliarini, E.; Gianangeli, A.; D'Orazio, M.; Gregorini, B.; Osimani, A.; Aquilanti, L.; Clementi, F.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of environmental temperature and relative humidity on algae biofouling that often occurs on porous and rough fired brick surfaces. Brick samples were chosen since their common use on building façades. Accelerated growth tests were performed under different relative humidities and different temperatures. Results showed the effects of different temperature conditions in terms of algae growth delay and reduction of the covered area. All the relative humidity conditions tested substantially showed no growth from an engineering standpoint. The modified Avrami's law succeeded in modelling the biofouling under the different environmental conditions
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268489 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Rapid tools for assessing building heritage's seismic vulnerability: a preliminary reliability analysis
JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
Autore/i: Quagliarini, E.; Lucesoli, M.; Bernardini, G.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Earthquakes represent a relevant issue for Building Heritage safety, especially while referring to historic urban fabric scenarios. Mitigation strategies should limit damages and losses to the Heritage, as well as critical emergency conditions at the urban scale (e.g. earthquake-induced damages on outdoor spaces; occupants’ safety). The possibility to promote numerical analyses and focused retrofitting interventions on isolated buildings and building aggregates (e.g. urban blocks) is strictly connected to the (limited) availability of time and economic resources. Hence, a current key strategy is to detect high-vulnerability elements and then define related risk maps to evidence critical conditions in the urban fabric by using quick-to-be applied approaches, especially about data collection, to allow a quick but enough reliable application at urban scale. Anyway, even if aggregates represent the most common building layout in historic city centres, most of such methods are focused on single structural units, composing the building aggregate, often requiring substantial detail levels (i.e. data from indoor surveys), to estimate post-earthquake conditions (i.e.: Macroseismic Vulnerability Assessment Methods – MVAMs). On the contrary, the few building aggregate-based approaches are generally based on outdoor expeditious data collection methods. Since estimations at urban scale could take advantages of rapid tools by using the related simplified approaches, this research considers two activities. Firstly, a preliminary reliability test is performed to evaluate a novel quick remote data collection approach on two well-known MVAMs. Then, a formulation to assess the seismic vulnerability of the entire aggregate from the indexes of each single structural units (MVAMs-based) is studied. This changing of scale could facilitate risk maps definition, by also extending inspected areas and reducing not necessary details, as well as emergency plans and strategies to define possible unavailable/obstructed paths in historic centres could take advantages to this proposal. A comparison with results from another existing rapid aggregate vulnerability assessment method (SISMA) is employed as a first attempt to verify the reliability of this proposed approach. MVAMs with the extended formulation for aggregates and SISMA according to the remote approach are applied to a real-world sample composed by historic masonry buildings recently affected by earthquakes (i.e. Central Italy, 2016–2017). Results firstly confirm that the novel remote data collection-based for MVAMs do not provokes an underestimation of the building vulnerability, moreover the comparison between the aggregates MVAM-based vulnerability indexes and SISMA underlines the presence of a reliable correlation.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268470 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Investigating Exposure in Historical Scenarios: How People Behave in Fires, Earthquakes and Floods
RILEM Bookseries
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.; D'Orazio, M.
Editore: Springer Netherlands
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: In case of a disaster, the individuals’ safety depends on interactions between buildings vulnerability, related post-event damages and environmental conditions, human reaction to hazardous situations. Such interferences are critical in historical scenarios, because of particular environment features (e.g.: high buildings vulnerabilities; urban layout which is not designed to face actual emergency; individuals’ familiarity with architectural spaces, especially for tourists). Current risk assessment methods are limited to define exposure in terms of population’s presence in the scenario, but analysis should consider human behaviors in emergency, and especially during the evacuation process. Simulation models for evaluating evacuation motion have been recently developed to this aim, and so to evaluate the effectiveness of risk-reduction strategies. Nevertheless, models development and validation should be supported by experimental data to effectively represent the “human factor” in critical conditions. Hence, this paper combines previous literature results and real-life emergency analyses (performed on videotapes database from all over the World), by focusing on three main natural disasters recurrent for historical scenarios: fires, earthquakes and flood. Behavioral analyses try to define significant man-environment interactions from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. Results show how noticed behaviors can be distinguished in common ones and peculiar ones (referring to a specific disaster). Quantitative analyses referring to motion quantities evidence differences between the considered emergencies and underline the importance to adopt specific model inputs for each simulated disaster
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268476 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
The Lossetti Tower in Beura-Cardezza (Italy): Structural Assessment and Rehabilitation of a Historical Dry Stone Masonry Building
RILEM Bookseries
Autore/i: Monni, F.; Quagliarini, E.; Lenci, S.
Editore: Springer Netherlands
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Dry stone masonry (DSM) is an ancient construction method widely used for vernacular and military buildings in rural and mountain regions. The use of this particular method is due to the large availability of natural stone that characterized these areas. The consolidation of DSM buildings is a challenging issue: in fact, this kind of masonry proved to be scarcely reliable under eccentric and horizontal loads and in absence of elements that are long enough to cross the masonry in its thickness. However, there are very few techniques that can preserve the peculiarities of a masonry texture. This paper presents the design approach that was used for the structural rehabilitation of the Lossetti Tower, a medieval DSM watchtower located in Beura-Cardezza (Italy, Piemonte Region). First, a preliminary research on the building was conducted. Secondly, to better understand the masonry quality, both a 3D laser scanning geometric survey and a technological study of the masonry typology and texture of the tower were executed. Thirdly, to evaluate the mechanical behaviour, a diagonal compression test on the DSM specimens was performed. Finally, after a structural assessment, was developed a tailored design of the strengthening intervention by using the technique of continuous basalt fibers stitching. The proposed system consists in creating a mesh of basalt fiber ropes, that passes through the masonry thickness and ties the blocks together. This system also allows to connect the wall in the transverse direction and to improve the monolithic behaviour of masonry panels in perfect compatibility with the original materials and it was preferred to the more invasive ones also for its reversibility
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268475 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
New indices for the existing city-centers streets network reliability and availability assessment in earthquake emergency
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE
Autore/i: Santarelli, Silvia; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico; D’Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: During earthquake emergencies in existing city-centers, streets network permits inhabitants to reach safe areas, and rescuers to access damaged zones and help population. However, the network can suffer from blocks due to debris of collapsed or heavily damaged buildings. Understanding urban fabric modifications and classifying elements vulnerability are fundamental steps while dealing with risk-assessment and risk-reduction strategies. This article offers a first quick approach for assessing seismic vulnerability of paths network by considering interferences with building heritage damages. Quick data about existing urban fabric (e.g., buildings typology; streets and buildings geometries) are combined for developing new vulnerability indices for streets network. The earthquake macroseismic intensity is introduced for evaluating probable street blockages and summarizing the overall rating of risks in critical network locations, thus intensity that is not included in other current quick methods for streets-building interference is here taken into account. Risk-reduction strategies based on the proposed indices could minimize the interventions on architectural heritage, maximizing the safety of evacuees. These new indices could be combined with traditional assessment of buildings vulnerability, and evaluations on pedestrians’ and vehicles evacuation flows, for evaluating management strategies
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255384 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Analisi strutturale e progettazione dell’intervento di consolidamento
La Cappella italiana dell’Assunzione della Vergine Maria - Messa in sicurezza, consolidamento strutturale, restauro architettonico
Autore/i: Monni, F.; Quagliarini, E.; Vallucci, S.; Agostinelli, S.; Benedetti, A.; Di Nisio, R.; Montesi, M.; Steli, E.
Luogo di pubblicazione: Aracne Editrice
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268577 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
A “smart” low-impact system for guaranteeing sustainable visitors’ access
HERITAGE 2018. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Heritage and Sustainable Development
Autore/i: Gregorini, B.; Bernardini, G.; Gianangeli, A.; Quagliarini, E.; D’Orazio, M.
Editore: Green Line Institute
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268581 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Spazi architettonici cognitivi per la sicurezza delle persone in emergenza: verso lo sviluppo di componenti edili interattivi (Cognitive built environment for user’s safety: towards intelligenti building components for emergency support)
Colloqui.AT.e 2018. Edilizia Circolare
Autore/i: Santarelli, Silvia; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico; D’Orazio, Marco
Editore: Edicom Editore
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268586 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Multi-hazard emergency management in historical centers: methods and tools for increasing mass-gathering safety in case of earthquake
TEMA
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; David, Chiara; Santarelli, Silvia; Quagliarini, Enrico; D’Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The use of historic city centers for touristic purposes, i.e. mass gatherings events (MEs), needs a multi-hazard approach which should jointly consider building heritage and hosted individuals’ emergency safety, by including effects of individuals’ behaviors to provide effective riskreduction strategies (i.e.: interventions on critical Building Heritage; outdoor spaces layout reorganization; emergency management; wayfinding systems;). This work evidences the capabilities of such approach in case of MEs-earthquake emergency combinations, by taking advantaging of a validated evacuation simulator, through a case-study application
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268590 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Building Heritage cognitivo: un sistema per la gestione e la conservazione dell’edificio storico (Cognitive Building heritage: a system for management and conservation of historic buildings)
Colloqui.AT.e 2018. Edilizia Circolare
Autore/i: Gregorini, Benedetta; Gianangeli, Andrea; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico; D’Orazio, Marco
Editore: Edicom Editore
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268583 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Tecnologie, sistemi costruttivi, quadro fessurativo e degrado
La Cappella italiana dell’Assunzione della Vergine Maria - Messa in sicurezza, consolidamento strutturale, restauro architettonico
Autore/i: Monni, F.; Quagliarini, E.
Editore: Aracne Editrice
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268575 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Earthquakes in historical city centers:methods for urban paths risk assessment and emergency availability based on historical buildings vulnerability
ReUSO 2018 - L’intreccio Dei Saperi per Rispettare Il Passato Interpretare Il Presente Salvaguardare Il Futuro
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Santarelli, Silvia; D’Orazio, Marco; Quagliarini, Enrico
Editore: Gangemi Editore
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268646 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
La conservazione dell’ambiente ipogeo di Palazzo Campana: monitoraggi e prove di caratterizzazione propedeutici all’intervento
ReUSO 2018 - L’intreccio Dei Saperi per Rispettare Il Passato Interpretare Il Presente Salvaguardare Il Futuro
Autore/i: Gregorini, Benedetta; Gianangeli, Andrea; Bernardini, Gabriele; D’Orazio, Marco; Quagliarini, Enrico
Editore: Gangemi Editore
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268647 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
STRUMENTI PER LA GESTIONE DELL’EMERGENZA NEI CENTRI STORICI
culture costruttive per il recupero sostenibile
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.; D’Orazio, M.
Editore: Edicom edizioni
Luogo di pubblicazione: Monfalcone (Gorizia)
Classificazione: 3 Libro
Abstract: Affrontare l’emergenza sisma nei centri storici implica analizzare congiuntamente la sicurezza di costruito, persone e sistema di spazi urbani, e la gestione delle prime e critiche fasi emergenziali (in particolare, dell’evacuazione), per pianificare azioni efficaci di riduzione del rischio. A tal fine, il volume offre al progettista una visione sistemica su strumenti e metodi utili nel processo decisionale. Nella prima parte, si discute lo stato delle conoscenze e si illustrano criticamente i principali strumenti a disposizione per pianificare e gestire l’emergenza. Partendo dalle ricerche sviluppate dagli autori, la seconda parte espone una proposta operativa innovativa, che sfrutta strumenti metodologici rapidi e avanzati (come quelli basati su tool di simulazione) per valutare diverse soluzioni progettuali. Infine, gli strumenti proposti sono applicati a caso di studio significativo.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/256249 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
MODELLING HUMAN MOTION IN FLOOD EVACUATION: PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Atti del XXXVI Convegno Nazionale di Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche
Autore/i: Postacchini, Matteo; Ascenzi, MARIA BEATRICE; Bruni, Ramona; Finizio, Fiorenza; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico; Brocchini, Maurizio; D'Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Human behaviors in flood emergency affect individuals’ safety levels in urban scenarios. Evacuation simulators are needed to fully perform risk assessment and risk-reduction solutions evaluations. Volunteers are engaged in laboratory experiments to propose floodwaters-evacuation motion relations. A mannequin (representing an adult) is used for determining human stability limits in floodwaters. Preliminary results are compared to previous works and relations could be added to evacuation simulators.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/263430 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Evacuation paths in historic city centres: A holistic methodology for assessing their seismic risk
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; Santarelli, Silvia; Lucesoli, Michele
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: During seismic emergencies in historical urban scenarios, evacuation paths can suffer significant damages and modifications due to both extrinsic (i.e.: building facing the path) and intrinsic (i.e.: pavements state, the presence of underground lifelines or hypogeum) vulnerabilities. Such damages and modifications can hinder the population's evacuation and the first responders’ intervention, mainly because of paths' blockage or unavailability in emergency conditions. Paths’ safety is additionally affected by populations’ exposure conditions, also due to individuals’ motion in the post-earthquake environment. Hence, an analysis of factors influencing the seismic risk of evacuation paths and a consequent evaluation of their safety during the emergency are thus desirable. This work aims to offer a preliminary and quick holistic method for seismic risk assessment and damage level estimation of possible evacuation paths. Firstly, data about safety influencing factors (i.e.: path use and exposure; geometric features; physical-structural features; extrinsic vulnerability; seismic hazard) are collected, associated to related weights and organized in risk indexes according to three calculation approaches. Then, according to real-world data, a correlation about path risk-damage levels is proposed with the additional purpose to evaluate the method capabilities in describing post-earthquake scenarios. Obtained results evidence that the proposed methodology could help safety designers in the seismic emergency planning of urban paths (i.e.: by means of risk maps) by including the management of population's evacuation routes towards assembly points, the optimization of rescuers’ activities and the promotion of different priorities of interventions on building heritage
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/259835 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Earthquake building debris estimation in historic city centres: From real world data to experimental-based criteria
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
Autore/i: Santarelli, Silvia; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Safety and availability of urban paths in case of earthquake depend on buildings vulnerability and related produced debris on streets, especially in historic city centres. Predicting probable critical debris amounts on evacuation paths (i.e.: up to path blockage) can help safety planners to propose focused interventions on buildings, to design more effective emergency plans and to improve the effectiveness of rescuers’ actions while supporting evacuees during first emergency phases. This way, this work proposes new experimentally-based correlations aimed at estimating the amount of external debris for historic masonry buildings (in terms of percentage of facing street area occupied by debris and related debris depth) depending on the vulnerability of these buildings, on the seismic magnitude, and (for the first time) on the combination of these two factors and the path geometric ratio (i.e.: building height versus facing street width), so as to consider the effect of different urban contexts. Different vulnerability assessment methods are also considered to generalise the proposed methodology. Finally, starting from obtained experimental correlations, the method is tested on one case study to demonstrate its capabilities in post-earthquake scenario prevision. The method could be a fundamental tool for the assessment of possible paths blockages and “average” available space for evacuees’ emergency motion along paths. Localizing these emergency interferences on an urban map will allow planners to propose specific risk-reduction strategies in the urban scenario.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/259837 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Is nano-TiO2 alone an effective strategy for the maintenance of stones in Cultural Heritage?
JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Graziani, Lorenzo; Diso, Daniela; Licciulli, Antonio; D'Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: TiO2-based nanocoatings have been becoming more and more widespread during last years in Cultural Heritage: they seem to be able to keep stone surfaces self-cleaned and to prevent the formation of biofouling. However, the efficiency of these coatings is strongly dependent on the substrate (i.e.: porosity and roughness) and on the amount of TiO2. Thus, this study experimentally investigates on the self-cleaning and anti-biofouling efficiency of a nano-TiO2 dispersion (without any organic or inorganic additive) applied on six different types of natural stones (three limestones, two sandstones and one tuff) usually used in Cultural Heritage, where high porosity and roughness can be found and the TiO2 amount cannot be increased in order to avoid any chromatic variation of the substrate. Water was used as solvent so as to reduce the risk of exposition of hazardous materials and to eliminate any chemical action on stones. The self-cleaning power of the coating was evaluated by measuring its ability at discolouring organic dye Methylene Blue, while its anti-biofouling efficiency was assessed by an accelerated growth test under controlled climatic conditions of two algal microorganisms, namely Chlorella mirabilis and Chroococcidiopsis fissurarum. Results show that, even if the photocatalytic and biocide power of nano-TiO2 itself is well known in literature, its application for the maintenance of stones in Cultural Heritage does not seem to be an effective strategy, especially when stones are highly porous and rough. Roughness and porosity of stones, in fact, can limit the efficiency of TiO2, which is thus not able to powerfully keep the stone substrate cleaned or slow down algal proliferation
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/258024 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
On the Modelling of Algal Biofouling Growth on Nano-TiO2 Coated and Uncoated Limestones and Sandstones
COATINGS
Autore/i: Graziani, L; Quagliarini, E
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Algal biofouling on archaeological and historic materials, as well as in modern building façade, is a common phenomenon that occurs when microorganisms of various nature adhere to the material, forming biological stains and patinas. It can significantly deteriorate the aesthetic and even mechanical quality of historic and archaeological artifacts. Thus, predicting the colonization progress of algae on treated and untreated materials can be helpful to establish appropriate schedules and methods of maintenance. In this way, the aim of this research was to modelize the algal colonization on nano-TiO2 coated and uncoated stone surfaces, usually found in historic and archaeological artifacts, by following Avrami’s theory. Particular attention was paid on correlating the model with some properties of the substrate, like roughness and porosity. Biofouling was tested on two sandstones and three limestone with different intrinsic characteristics (porosity, roughness) by means of an accelerated lab-scale test. A suspension of green alga Chlorella mirabilis and cyanobacteria Chroococcidiopsis fissurarum was used as biofouling. Digital image analysis was carried out in order to find the attachment rate and the growth of algal spots. Results show that the attachment specific rate increased linearly with time, and the assumption of a constant growth rate was acceptable. A good agreement between the simulation and the experimental results was obtained with a maximum error of 0.59%.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/257847 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Experimental and FEM Investigation of Cob Walls under Compression
ADVANCES IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Maracchini, Gianluca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Earth has been used as construction material since prehistoric times, and it is still utilized nowadays in both developed and developing countries. Heritage conservation purposes and its intrinsic environmental benefits have led researchers to investigate the mechanical behaviour of this material. However, while a lot of works concern with rammed earth, CEB, and adobe techniques, very few studies are directed towards cob, which is an alternative to the more diffused rammed earth and adobe in specific geographic conditions. Due to this lack, this paper presents an experimental program aimed at assessing the failure mode and the main mechanical properties of cob earth walls (compressive strength, Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) through monotonic axial compression tests. Results show that, if compared with CEB, adobe, and rammed earth, cob has the lowest compressive strength, the lowest modulus of elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio. Differences are also found by comparing results with those obtained for other cob techniques, underlining both the high regional variability of cob and the need of performing more research on this topic. A strong dependence of material properties on loading rate and water content seems to exist too. Finally, the ability of a common analytical method used for masonry structures (an FEM macromodelling with a total strain rotating crack model) to represent the mechanical behaviour of cob walls is showed.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/259836 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
L’emergenza sismica nei centri storici in caso di grande affollamento: dall’analisi del comportamento agli strumenti progettuali
Colloqui.AT.e 2017 - DEMOLITION OR RECONSTRUCTION?
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; David, C.; Santarelli, Silvia; Quagliarini, E.; D’Orazio, M.
Editore: Edicom edizioni, Monfalcone (Gorizia)
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255522 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Evacuazione post-sisma nei centri storici: dalla stima del danno alla mitigazione del rischio per la popolazione
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.; Bernardini, G.; Santarelli, Silvia
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Comprendere quanto le macerie causate dal sisma influenzino le capacità del sistema viario d’emergenza ha un ruolo centrale per la sicurezza degli evacuanti e la pianificazione delle operazioni di soccorso, soprattutto nei centri storici
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255398 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Grandi eventi e terrorismo: la progettazione consapevole della sicurezza delle persone
ANTINCENDIO
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.; D’Orazio, M.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: I recenti attentati terroristici di Nizza, Parigi, Manchester e Barcellona, nonché l’evento di Piazza San Carlo a Torino hanno sollevato problematiche significative per la sicurezza alle persone negli spazi architettonici, sia all’interno degli edifici che negli spazi urbani, e specialmente in caso di grandi eventi e pubbliche manifestazioni. Queste emergenze invitano a considerare come, specialmente in condizioni di grande affollamento, il rischio per gli occupanti sia fortemente influenzato dall’interazione tra uomo, il layout spaziale, i danni ambientali (inclusi incendi a seguito di esplosioni), le procedure di emergenza, i sistemi di assistenza nell’evacuazione e la gestione da parte dei soccorritori e delle Forze dell’Ordine. La circolare del Ministero degli Interni del 7 giugno 2017 e le successive direttive indicano i criteri da adottare per assicurare un adeguato livello di “safety” alle persone, presentando gli elementi della normativa cogente per l’antincendio nei luoghi di pubblico spettacolo e negli impianti sportivi. Parallelamente, l’analisi di eventi reali ci suggerisce come comprendere e modellare i comportamenti e le scelte che le persone adottano durante il processo di emergenza ed evacuazione possano essere utili al design degli organismi edili e alla pianificazione “integrata” della sicurezza in essi di fronte a questi scenari di crisi. Come già è stato per il fenomeno incendio (grazie alla Fire Safety Engineering), la progettazione degli spazi architettonici può essere quindi arricchita da questi aspetti anche per questo genere di disastri. Tramite analisi preliminari eventi reali, questo contributo vuole delineare alcune riflessioni preliminari sui punti critici dell’emergenza attentato anche in raffronto alle condizioni di sicurezza delle persone in evento di incendio.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255396 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Soluzioni di wayfinding non invasive per aumentare la sicurezza antincendio negli edifici storici
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Fire safety codes in Building Heritage generally suggest to increase number and dimension of exits and paths so as to reduce the needed egress time. Similar solutions clearly clash with preservation criteria because introduce massive modifications to the original building layout. On the contrary, the “behavioural design” approach tries to solve this conflict by proposing not-invasive solutions based on effective human behaviours. Instead of modifying the building layout, wayfinding solutions can reduce the needed egress time by improving the occupants’ use of paths during the evacuation process. An innovative wayfinding system based on photoluminescent materials (visible in all illumination and smoke conditions) and continuous signage system is proposed. Drills in a significant case study (an historic Italian- style theatre) shows that the maximum egress time decreases of about 26% in comparison to the traditional wayfinding systems, and without any building layout modifications.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255402 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Progettazione sostenibile degli spazi architettonici: ripartiamo dagli utenti
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.; Bernardini, G.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255408 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Functionalised exposed building materials: Self-cleaning, photocatalytic and biofouling abilities
CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL
Autore/i: Tobaldi, D. M.; Graziani, L.; Seabra, M. P.; Hennetier, L.; Ferreira, P.; Quagliarini, E.; Labrincha, J. A.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: With the advent of urbanisation, there was a considerable and progressive worsening of urban air quality. Amongst the solutions proposed by scientific research, photocatalysis proved itself to be one of the most promising. In the present work, commercial glazed ceramic tiles were functionalised with a micrometric TiO2 layer adopting an industrial-like process. It was purposely chosen to avoid the use of nanoparticles because they might be inhaled and come into direct contact with the cells of the human organism during the industrial processing. Additionally, the self-cleaning, photocatalytic – the former by means of liquid-solid phase photocatalytic tests and water contact angle measurements; the latter against nitrogen oxides abatement – and biofouling abilities of the functionalised materials were thoroughly investigated. Results showed that the functionalised glazed ceramic tile possessed excellent self-cleaning and photocatalytic properties. As per the algal growth, surface roughness showed itself to be a key-point: the TiO2 surface layer, giving the material a higher surface roughness compared to the untreated one, had an accelerated algal growth process
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255494 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Basalt fiber continuous stitchings for strengthening the dry stone masonry of the Lossetti Tower in Beura-Cardezza (Italy)
TEMA
Autore/i: Monni, F.; Quagliarini, E.; Lenci, S.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Dry stone masonry is widely used in rural and mountain regions and its consolidation is a challenge issue if it is wanted to preserve the peculiarities of masonry texture. In this paper is presented the design approach used for consolidation intervention of Lossetti Tower - a medieval dry stone watchtower located in Beura-Cardezza (Italy, Piemonte Region) - using the technique of continuous basalt fibres stitching, consisting in creating a mesh of BF ropes, which pass through the masonry thickness and tie blocks together. A 3D laser scanner survey of the tower was executed and, to evaluate the technique effectiveness, diagonal compression test on masonry specimens was done, in order to develop a tailored design of the strengthening intervention, in perfect compatibility with the original structures
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255483 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Riduzione del rischio sismico e retrofitting degli edifici scolastici: il caso della scuola “Puccini” di Senigallia (AN)
Colloqui.AT.e 2017. DEMOLITION OR RECONSTRUCTION?
Autore/i: Monni, F.; Quagliarini, E.; Lenci, S.; Clementi, Francesco
Editore: Edicom edizioni, Monfalcone (Gorizia)
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255484 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Historic masonry buildings and global modelling through the EFM: comparison between numerical simulation and real behaviour through a case study
Colloqui.AT.e 2017 - DEMOLITION OR RECONSTRUCTION?
Autore/i: Maracchini, G; Quagliarini, E; Clementi, Francesco; Monni, F.
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: In Europa, la valutazione sismica degli edifici storici in muratura costi-tuisce una problematica di primaria importanza, a causa dell’intrinseco valore cul-turale e delle funzioni che tali edifici mantengono ancora oggi. In questo campo vengono adoperate diverse strategie di modellazione, generalmente classificate sulla base del tipo di risposta sismica che tendono a rappresentare (locale o globale). Tra i metodi di analisi della risposta globale, la modellazione solida FEM costituisce attualmente il miglior compromesso tra accuratezza, generalità di applicazione e onere computazionale. Tuttavia, nella pratica professionale vengono generalmente preferiti metodi di modellazione semplificati, i quali richiedono un minore onere computazionale e un minor numero di parametri meccanici. Tra di essi, il modello a Telaio Equivalente (EFM) è attualmente il più diffuso. Al fine di offrire un con-tributo alla validazione di tale metodo, in questo lavoro vengono riportati i primi risultati di uno studio concernente la modellazione di un edificio storico in muratura parte di un aggregato edilizio di cui risulta disponibile lo stato di danneggiamento reale causato da un recente evento sismico. Tale edificio è caratterizzato da una disposizione delle aperture per la maggior parte regolare, fattore fondamentale nella modellazione a telaio. Le problematiche di modellazione tipiche dell’approccio a telaio vengono affrontate nello stesso modo in cui vengono affrontate nella pratica professionale. I risultati delle simulazioni numeriche vengono dunque confrontati con il danneggiamento reale riscontrato durante le fasi di rilievo post-sismico. Come atteso, le simulazioni numeriche riescono a cogliere lo stato di danneggiamento in termini di concentrazione del danno. Tuttavia, le modalità di danno riscontrate ri-sultano spesso differenti da quelle reali, specialmente nelle fasce di piano. Ciò evi-denzia la necessità di un aggiornamento del modello tramite l’aumento del livello di conoscenza della struttura.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255514 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Modelli comportamentali e indicatori prestazionali per la valutazione dell’emergenza sismica a scala urbana
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.; Bernardini, G.; Santarelli, Silvia
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Earthquake effects on urban scenarios (as building damage, debris on streets, urban fires) influence human psychological, perceptual and behavioural responses in emergency evacuation. Man-environment interactions should be included for a more effective safety assessment but i.e. Italian guidelines, especially at urban scale, do not consider them at all. According to Behavioural Design approach, an experimental-based seismic evacuation simulator is developed. As in Fire Safety Engineering methods for egress analysis, simulator applications on a given scenario allow to assess the impact of individuals’ behaviors on their safety levels. Safety criteria (i.e.: flows along paths, safe area choice and time to reach it, debris influence, trapped people, and their combination) could be joined with traditional evaluations to obtain risk maps, so as to locate critical elements, propose and place interventions (e.g.: on buildings; on emergency plans; wayfinding systems), and compare related different scenarios
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255405 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Algoritmi di ottimizzazione del comfort termico e di qualità dell’aria nelle scuole: sviluppo di un sistema BD-based
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D'Orazio, Marco; Quagliarini, Enrico; Stazi, Francesca; Bernardini, Gabriele; Naspi, Federica; DI PERNA, Costanzo; Ulpiani, Giulia
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/252002 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Internal insulation solutions for a historic building renovation: a probabilistic approach for the affordability assessment
TEMA
Autore/i: DI GIUSEPPE, ELISA; IANNACCONE, MONICA; TELLONI, MARTINA; QUAGLIARINI, ENRICO; D'ORAZIO, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/250004 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Earthquake safety in historic city centres: how to plan evacuation routes by considering environmental and behavioural factors
REHAB 2017
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Santarelli, Silvia; Quagliarini, E.; D’Orazio, M.
Editore: Green Lines Institute for Sustainable Development
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: As shown by recent Italian earthquakes, historic city centers placed in earthquake prone areas are critical scenarios for the inhabitants’ safety. They are characterized by complex and com-pact urban fabric and also by significant population presence (including tourists who are gen-erally not familiar with the urban layout). The most important role in case of earthquake emergency is assigned to streets and public spaces, that are used as evacuation paths and safe-ty areas. Current emergency management procedures are generally based on outcomes of ge-ometrical aspects (ratio between buildings heights and street width) or on built environment vulnerability analysis, but completely overlook the human factor. On the contrary, in case of earthquake evacuation, the population has to face with the post-event environment, including modifications due to the earthquake (debris, ruins, possibility to use certain paths): people should gain assembly points by preferring the less dangerous conditions in terms of damaged buildings and bottlenecks due to pedestrians’ evacuation flows. Starting from this point of view, this work provides bases for the definition a novel risk index for streets in earthquake emergency scenarios based on environmental risk level for the possible paths, positions and possible choices of evacuating population and related possible presence of slowing down in the motion process (especially in urban scenarios characterized by high population density or presence of tourists, who can be foreign with the city map). For each street along each possi-ble evacuation path, the evaluation algorithm combines: Vp as the vulnerability of buildings; Cp as the estimation of buildings damages and ruins presence along the street, in function of the earthquake intensity; Pp as the presence of risks with possible fatalities (e.g.: explosion risk); LOSp as level of service [m2/person] for evacuation speeds estimation and prediction of possible bottlenecks. Each factor is associated to a weight according to MCDM criteria. Capa-bilities of the algorithm are evaluated on a case study (the historic city center of Civitanova Marche, MC, Italy) through the application of an Earthquake Pedestrians’ Evacuation Simula-tor (EPES). Results shows how the proposed evaluation method underlines critical environ-mental conditions for man-environment interactions and suggest the definition of a map for priority interventions on building heritage in order to reduce these hazardous conditions for population
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255417 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Soluzioni non invasive per la sicurezza urbana post-sisma: valutazione di un sistema di guida dell’evacuazione
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.; Bernardini, G.; Santarelli, Silvia
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: I sistemi di wayfinding possono aumentare la sicurezza delle persone agevolando l’efficace e autonomo raggiungimento delle zone sicure urbane, dopo aver percepito l’evento sismico
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255401 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Il “Behavioural Design” per la sicurezza sostenibile nel (e del) Building Heritage
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.; Bernardini, G.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Basare le soluzioni per la sicurezza negli ambienti storici a partire dalle esigenze in emergenza degli occupanti permette di dare un valido supporto alle persone pur rispettando i caratteri architettonici
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255397 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Il “Behavioural Design” degli spazi architettonici: verso un approccio smart e sostenibile della progettazione
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.; Bernardini, G.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The common schematic and deterministic approach to architectural design generally consider that planned spaces and facilities could be able to activate intended users’ behaviors. However, real-world scenarios, at different built environment scales and in both normal and emergency situations, stress differences between “theoretical” solutions and users’ responses. This work would like to outline the potentialities of a behavioural-based approach to architectural strategies definition. By adopting an experimental- based methodology (which includes: understanding human behaviors by analyzing experiments and real-world conditions; developing behavioural simulation models; using developed simulator to assess critical man-environment interactions, and evaluate the impact of interferences-reduction strategies), the proposed “Behavioural Design” (BD) would like to adapt architectural spaces depending on human behaviors, so as to correctly supply the needed help to occupants. As main case-studies, BD can be applied to individuals’ safety and indoor environmental quality.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255403 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Wayfinding e gestione dell’esodo in caso di incendio nei teatri storici: soluzioni innovative (e sostenibili) a confronto
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Quagliarini, E.; D’Orazio, M.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In case of fire, the rapid and correct evacuation of autonomous occupants from Building Heritage can be ensured thorugh wayfinding systems, so as to focus rescuers’ operations on disabled people. These solutions have a low impact on the building since they do not need layout modifications. Contrary to “passive” signage, “active” (intelligent) wayfinding systems monitor human egress process, fire spreading and building damages, and suggest best escape paths depending on these conditions. According to a Behavioural Design approach, this work proposes a low-impact Intelligent Evacuation Guidance Systems-IEGS focused on the human egress behaviors tracking. Sensors data are collected by a central unit, which find the best evacuation route avoiding the use of overcrowded building areas (corridors, staircases, geometrical bottlenecks). Finally, interactive signs (placed at doors and paths intersections) point out these recommended directions to evacuees. The system effectiveness is evaluated by means of egress simulations on a case study (the “Gentile da Fabriano” theatre in Fabriano, Italy), by using a validated simulator developed by our research group. The scenario includes the presence of disabled occupants and related rescuers’ operations. The theater egress time is significantly reduced (up to -32%) by using the active system in respect to the passive one
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255406 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Experimental investigation of masonry columns strengthening using basalt fibre ropes: first results
REHAB 2017
Autore/i: Monni, F.; Quagliarini, E.; Vaccarini, M.; Lenci, S.
Editore: Green Lines Institute for Sustainable Development
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255486 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Livelli di comfort e consumi energetici negli edifici: verso una progettazione basata sul comportamento degli utenti
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D'Orazio, Marco; Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; Stazi, Francesca; Naspi, Federica
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/252000 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Interazione uomo-ambiente nelle aule scolastiche: driving factors per la progettazione di soluzioni sostenibili
IL PROGETTO SOSTENIBILE
Autore/i: D'Orazio, Marco; Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; Stazi, Francesca; Naspi, Federica
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/252001 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Design of a smart system for indoor climate control in historic underground built environment
ENERGY PROCEDIA
Autore/i: Stazi, Francesca; Gregorini, Benedetta; Gianangeli, Andrea; Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The application of sensors-actuators networks in Building Heritage can lead to significant improvement in indoor climate control, with the aim to both reduce energy consumption, and improve conditions for occupants and hosted Heritage. This study proposes the preliminary design of a smart indoor climate control system, based on low-impact application criteria, which can be applied to visited underground built environment. The system is based on the balance of hygrothermal loads. Sensors and actuators requirements are defined, and control algorithm are based on the comparison between real-time monitored and “natural” temperature and hygrometric values (for stationary and transitory conditions).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255377 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Cultural Heritage and Earthquake: The Case Study of “Santa Maria Della Carità” in Ascoli Piceno
THE OPEN CIVIL ENGINEERING JOURNAL
Autore/i: Clementi, F.; Quagliarini, E.; Monni, F.; Giordano, E.; Lenci, S.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/252430 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Fast, low cost and safe methodology for the assessment of the state of conservation of historical buildings from 3D laser scanning: The case study of Santa Maria in Portonovo (Italy)
JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
Autore/i: QUAGLIARINI, ENRICO; CLINI, Paolo; Ripanti, Mirko
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The assessment of the state of conservation and risk of historical buildings represents a current and more and more important challenge. It usually requires different steps and is traditionally a cost, time-demanding and often unsafe process. This way, in this paper, a fast, low cost and safe methodology from 3D-laser scanner is provided for this issue. Following it, it is possible to easily assess if some activated mechanisms can be found in some macro-elements of the historical building. Furthermore, from the superposition of photographic data previous interventions can be recognized, as well as, degraded areas. This method was applied to the case study of Santa Maria in Portonovo church, a little jewel of the Italian Marche Romanesque architecture, where quite evident mechanisms were found in the face of the vestibule, in the north side wall, in the main facade and in the original apse. It was also possible to assess the typical physiologic deformation of the inner vaults subject to their own weight. A high number of areas largely restored by previous works were then found, probably due to a diffused and continuous degradation of the materials caused by the sea exposure. This method works well especially after, i.e. an earthquake, whereas it is possible to accurately evaluate the building safety far from it.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/245704 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
A preliminary combined simulation tool for the risk assessment of pedestrians' flood-induced evacuation
ENVIRONMENTAL MODELLING & SOFTWARE
Autore/i: BERNARDINI, GABRIELE; POSTACCHINI, MATTEO; QUAGLIARINI, ENRICO; BROCCHINI, MAURIZIO; CIANCA, CATERINA; D'ORAZIO, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/251392 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Flooding risk in existing urban environment: From human behavioral patterns to a microscopic simulation model
ENERGY PROCEDIA
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Camilli, Selene; Quagliarini, Enrico; D'Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Climate changes-related floods will seriously strike population in existing urban environment. Despite Current assessment methods seem to underestimate the human behaviors influence on individuals’ safety, especially during outdoor evacuation. Representing pedestrians’ evacuation would allow considering the “human” factor in risk analysis. This work proposes a flood-induced pedestrians’ evacuation simulation model, based on a combined microscopic approach. Behavioral rules, obtained by real events videotapes analyses, are organized in an agent-based model. Motion criteria proposals are based on the Social Force Model. Experimental motion quantities values are offered. The model will be implemented in a risk assessment simulation tool.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255383 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Pre-tensioned basalt fibers ropes stitching for masonry strengthening against vertical bending: A first experimental insight
Mechanics of Masonry Structures Strengthened with Composite Materials II
Autore/i: Monni, Francesco; Quagliarini, Enrico; Lenci, Stefano
Editore: Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign aimed at improving the innovative technique of continuos basalt fiber (BF) stitching in order to repair the masonry panels damaged by seismic events or to enhance the seismic behavior of unreinforced masonry walls. The masonry panels were tested under out-of-plane actions, one of the common way of failure for masonry walls during an earthquake. The most significant change introduced respect to the system already tested in previous studies, is the presence of pre-tensioned elements and mechanical anchorage of the BF ropes, always with the end of proposing a dry retrofitting system. The results indicate the effectiveness of this, increasing the performance of masonry wall specimens under outof- plane actions respect to the damaged and unreinforced conditions. Besides, this technique potentially appears fully sustainable, because it is cheap, compatible, reversible, fire, and chemical resistant, it improves but not replaces original materials and, finally, it does not substantially use synthetic adhesives. All these reasons make this novel application of BF ropes fully sustainable and specialized to architectural heritage restoration.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255436 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Flexible repointing of historical facing-masonry column-type specimens with basalt fibers: A first insight
JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
Autore/i: QUAGLIARINI, ENRICO; MONNI, FRANCESCO; Greco, Federica; LENCI, Stefano
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/246856 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Seismic assessment of cultural heritage: Nonlinear 3D analyses of “Santa Maria della Carità” in Ascoli Piceno
Proceedings of the 6th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering
Autore/i: Monni, F.; Clementi, F.; Quagliarini, E.; Giordano, E.; Lenci, S.
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: In this paper a masonry church is analysed in order to assess its seismic vulnerability with respect to the actual state of conservation, including past retrofitting. The case study is the “Santa Maria della Carità” church, located in Ascoli Piceno, a small town of Marche region, in the Centre of Italy, where two major earthquakes occurred in August and in October 2016, causing widespread damage. The church has a large historical, architectural value because is one of the most important example of the Barocco age in the region, and contains a lot of precious paintings of local artists. Moreover it has also a social value for the city of Ascoli Piceno, because it is the only one that is opened to the devotees for every moment of day and night. Stroked also by the L’Aquila earthquakes (2009) the church was subjected to a retrofit intervention (2010), in order to obtain a better “box-like behaviour”. Churches are usually characterised by a high seismic vulnerability due to their structural and geometric configurations, heterogeneous and deteriorated materials. These structures have very large and high external walls without internal orthogonal walls: the space thus created is often covered by some thin vaults or thrusting arches. In this work using an advanced FEM approach (a 3D nonlinear solid numerical model has been used to evaluate the seismic capacity) the structure has been studied to establish its significant deficiencies, in order to obtain a clear understanding of the structural behavior. The results should be useful to design a reliable strengthening intervention, but they could be also extrapolated to the wide variety of historical churches, and generalized for a wide masonry building category.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/251271 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Preliminary study of the influence of different modelling choices and materials properties uncertainties on the seismic assessment of an existing RC school building
Proceedings INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF NUMERICAL ANALYSIS AND APPLIED MATHEMATICS (ICNAAM 2016)
Autore/i: Maracchini, G.; Clementi, F.; Quagliarini, E.; Lenci, S.; Monni, F.
Editore: AIP Conference Proceedings
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: This paper studies the influence of some aleatory and epistemic uncertainties on the seismic behaviour of an existing RC school building through a codified sensitivity analysis that uses pushover analyses and a logic tree approach. The considered epistemic uncertainties, i.e. diaphragm stiffness and modelling of stairs, seem not influencing the final assessment in term of index of seismic risk. Vice versa, aleatory ones, i.e. concrete and steel mechanical properties, strongly affect the Index. For this reason, investigations and tests should focus on the study of the mechanical properties, and, in particular, on the study of columns’ concrete mechanical properties, which have the largest impact on the building seismic response.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/250263 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
How to simulate pedestrian behaviors in seismic evacuation for vulnerability reduction of existing buildings
AIP Conference Proceedings
Autore/i: Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; D'Orazio, Marco
Editore: American Institute of Physics Inc.
Luogo di pubblicazione: Melville, New York
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Understanding and representing how individuals behave in earthquake emergencies would be essentially to assess the impact of vulnerability reduction strategies on existing buildings in seismic areas. In fact, interactions between individuals and the scenario (modified by the earthquake occurrence) are really important in order to understand the possible additional risks for people, especially during the evacuation phase. The current approach is based on “qualitative” aspects, in order to define best practice guidelines for Civil Protection and populations. On the contrary, a “quantitative” description of human response and evacuation motion in similar conditions is urgently needed. Hence, this work defines the rules for pedestrians’ earthquake evacuation in urban scenarios, by taking advantages of previous results of real-world evacuation analyses. In particular, motion laws for pedestrians is defined by modifying the Social Force model equation. The proposed model could be used for evaluating individuals’ evacuation process and so for defining operative strategies for interferences reduction in critical urban fabric parts (e.g.: interventions on particular buildings, evacuation strategies definition, city parts projects).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255395 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
How to help elderly in indoor evacuation wayfinding: Design and test of a not-invasive solution for reducing fire egress time in building heritage scenarios
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Quagliarini, Enrico; D’Orazio, Marco; Santarelli, Silvia
Editore: Springer International Publishing AG
Luogo di pubblicazione: Cham
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Population aging increases the importance of emergency safety for elderly, especially in complex and unfamiliar spaces. Individuals who can autonomously move should be encouraged to evacuate by themselves, and adequate help should be provided to them. To this aim, a “behavioral design” approach of these elderly facilities is proposed: understanding behaviors and needs in emergency; designing systems for interacting with them during an emergency; testing solutions in real environment or by using validated simulators. Wayfinding tasks are fundamental aspects in evacuation: elderly have to receive proper information about paths to be used, in the simplest, clearest and most unequivocal way, so as to reduce wrong behavioral choices and building egress time as much as possible. This work proposes a robust wayfinding system based on photoluminescent material (PLM) tiles with continuous applications along paths. Tests concerning a significant case study (an historical theatre) evidence how the proposed system allow to significantly increase elderly evacuation speed (more than 20%) in respect to the traditional system. It could be introduced in other buildings for increasing elderly safety and data are useful to define man-wayfinding systems interactions.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255392 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
A more sustainableway for producing RC sandwich panels on-site and in developing countries
SUSTAINABILITY
Autore/i: GRAZIANI, LORENZO; QUAGLIARINI, ENRICO; D'ORAZIO, Marco; LENCI, Stefano; SCALBI, AGNESE
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/246855 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
A Novel and Sustainable Application of Basalt Fibers for Strengthening Unreinforced Masonry Walls
JOURNAL OF NATURAL FIBERS
Autore/i: QUAGLIARINI, ENRICO; SCALBI, AGNESE; MONNI, FRANCESCO; LENCI, Stefano
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/246853 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Uses and limits of the Equivalent Frame Model on existing unreinforced masonry buildings for assessing their seismic risk: a review
JOURNAL OF BUILDING ENGINEERING
Autore/i: Quagliarini, E.; Maracchini, G.; Clementi, F.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Since the late 1970s, nonlinear static analysis have had an increasing use in the seismic assessment of existing unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings. Different modeling strategies can be used to evaluate the global seismic response of these buildings, such as the Continuous Constitutive Laws Model (CCLM) and the Equivalent Frame Model (EFM). Despite the CCLM modelling approach seems to be the most suitable at this aim, it needs many input data, that are often quite difficult to be known, and requires a high computational effort. For this reason, the EFM, which is based on strongly simplified hypotheses, is preferred in professional practice, where a small computational burden and a time- and cost-saving structural analysis by using few mechanical parameters is needed. In this paper, a review of its uses and limits is proposed, in order to identify the most critical issues and define its proper use in professional practice when applied to existing URM buildings. As a result, it is highlighted that the EFM can be reasonably used as a first conservative approach for the seismic assessment of existing URM buildings with box behaviour and quite regular opening patterns. Thus, up to now, from this review its use is encouraged in seismic analysis of existing URM buildings after providing them a reduction of their floors and roofs deformability, an adequate wall-to-floor and wall-to-roof connections and a regularization of the opening patterns.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/246021 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Strengthening three-leaf masonry with basalt fibre: Experimental and numerical data
AIP Conference Proceedings
Autore/i: Monni, F.; Quagliarini, E.; Lenci, S.; Maracchini, G.
Editore: American Institute of Physics Inc.
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/268566 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Dynamic guidance tool for a safer earthquake pedestrian evacuation in urban systems
COMPUTERS, ENVIRONMENT AND URBAN SYSTEMS
Autore/i: Bernardini, Gabriele; Santarelli, Silvia; Quagliarini, Enrico; D'Orazio, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In earthquake disasters, the leading causes of death are directly related both to build collapses and fatalities during the following evacuation phase. Allowing people to autonomously gain safe areas and assembly points should be the basis for reducing human losses in urban systems. However, some important environmental and behavioural factors (e.g. vulnerability of buildings, compact urban fabric, cascade effects, presence of people unfamiliar with the urban layout, absence of information on evacuation paths) can hinder this ‘self-help’-based evacuation process. This issue is really important in historical centres where evacuees suffer a combination of unfavourable conditions to safely escape. This paper concerns a non-invasive solution for guiding people along probable safe evacuation routes in earthquake emergency. The proposed Seismic Pedestrians' Evacuation Dynamic Guidance Expert System (SpeedGuides) considers the influence of the main environmental and behavioural safety factors for evacuees (i.e. street vulnerability, street blockages probability, crowding conditions along paths, presence of mortal dangers, visibility conditions) and combines them in a safety index through the Multi-criteria techniques application. SpeedGuides dynamically collects safety factor data during the time and suggests the possible safest path to the nearest secure zone according to the Dijkstra's algorithm approach. SpeedGuides is an easy-to-use model proposed for application on personal devices (e.g. smartphone) that, taking advantage of different expert methods, allows evacuees to simple enhance their safety. A first effectiveness evaluation of SpeedGuides is provided through an earthquake pedestrians' evacuation simulator in a significant case study. The evacuee performances (with and without the proposed guidance tool) are compared and discussed. Results demonstrate how individuals' safety levels are increased when evacuees use SpeedGuides.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255382 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Earthquakes and historic masonry buildings: an experimentally based algorithm for debris formation prediction
REHAB 2017 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Preservation, Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Historical Buildings and Structures
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; Santarelli, Silvia; Quagliarini, E.; D’Orazio, M.
Editore: Green Lines Institute for Sustainable Development
Luogo di pubblicazione: Barcelos
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Immediately after an earthquake, the emergency paths play an important role for evacuees and rescuers in historic centres. Especially in historical scenarios, earthquake effects could affect the mobility system and interaction between people and modified scenario. The spreading of debris from damaged buildings on the paths could obstacle the citizens’ evacuation to safe points and rescue operations. For this reason, defining quick criteria about seismic behaviours of historic building and related debris formation along streets and public spaces are the first steps in defining effective damage scenario maps, designing risk reduction interventions on critical areas, evaluating emergency plans and innovative risk-reduction tools for helping peo-ples. The present work offers an experimental relationship for the estimation of external debris for-mation (amount of debris along streets) by means of post-earthquake aerial images of Italian historic centres (images of the immediate aftermath of L’Aquila-2009 and Emilia-2012 earth-quakes are examined). For each building, the quick proposed algorithm evaluates the percent-ages of external debris area (along the facing street) as function of its vulnerability and earth-quake magnitude (Richter scale). The algorithm is firstly validated by comparing predicted and effective values of ruins area depths in the considered case-studies. Similar debris estimation relationships could offer significant information for evaluating risk levels in street network damages and could be also combined with simulations about probable pedestrians’ evacuation in post-earthquake scenario. Results will be useful in order to reduce the identified interfer-ences between built environment and evacuation process through interventions on critical his-toric buildings (in their relations with the street network elements) and strategies for emer-gency management.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255416 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Photocatalytic TiO2 nanocoatings for biofouling prevention of clay facades
New Approaches to Building Pathology and Durability. Volume 6 of the series Building Pathology and Rehabilitation
Autore/i: Graziani, Lorenzo; Quagliarini, Enrico; D'Orazio, Marco
Editore: Springer Science+Business Media Singapore
Luogo di pubblicazione: singapore
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/234617 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
New materials and technologies in in architectural heritage restoration: masonry columns confinement using basalt fibres ropes
TEMA
Autore/i: Monni, F.; Quagliarini, E.; Greco, F.; Lenci, S.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This paper deals with strengthening and consolidation of masonry columns, a long developed issue that also in the past interested restorers and designers in their works. A typical past solution for solving this kind of problem involves the use of a jacketing of the column by metal profiles. Nowadays strips of composite materials have been substituting these last ones but, when it is wanted to maintain the original aspect of the brickwork, this technique cannot be applied, so an experimental campaign about consolidation of masonry columns using a flexible element located in mortar joints has been developed. The results show the effective of this innovative technique in enhancing compressive strength of masonry columns without compromising their aesthetical appearance
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255481 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Ingegneria “su misura” per il consolidamento di una torre medievale in muratura a secco
MATER(i)A. Materials, Architecture, Technology, Energy/Environment, Reuse (Interdisciplinary), Adaptability
Autore/i: Monni, F.; Quagliarini, E.; Lenci, S.
Editore: Gangemi Editore
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255488 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Improving human safety in cultural heritage buildings: experiments on effectiveness of wayfinding systems in a theatre
TEMA
Autore/i: Bernardini, G.; D’Orazio, M.; Quagliarini, E.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Current fire safety regulations in historical buildings are generally limited to the number and dimension of exits and evacuation paths. This approach clearly clashes with preservation criteria because of the need of invasive layout modifications. On the contrary, a “behavioural design” approach could solve this conflict by proposing evacuation facilities based on effective human behaviours. This work proposes an innovative wayfinding system based on phtoluminescent continuous signs. Experiments in a significant real world scenario demonstrate the possibility to considerably decrease the evacuation timing without building layout modifications
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255412 Collegamento a IRIS




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