Tiziano BELLEZZE

Pubblicazioni

Tiziano BELLEZZE

 

195 pubblicazioni classificate nel seguente modo:

Nr. doc. Classificazioni
104 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
79 1 Contributo su Rivista
8 2 Contributo in Volume
3 5 Altro
1 6 Brevetti
Anno
Risorse
2014
Cathodic protection of a ship propeller shaft by impressed current anodes
LA METALLURGIA ITALIANA
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Roventi, Gabriella
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This work studies the application of cathodic protection by potentiostatic polarization method with impressed current anodes for preventing corrosion phenomena on ship propeller shafts made of 17-4PH stainless steel, in seawater. Tests were carried out on a full scale propeller system (more than 3 m long) by using one or two activated titanium wires placed lengthwise in the interspace between the shaft and the stern tube. In order to simulate ship navigation and ship berthed in harbour, flowing (40 L/min) and stagnant seawater were respectively considered. Both technical solutions, consisting in the use of one or two titanium anodes, were able to protect the shaft. The results are compared with the data reported in previous works with different types and geometries of the anode.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/200902 Collegamento a IRIS

2014
Corrosion resistance of galvanized steel reinforcements in carbonated concrete: effect of wet–dry cycles in tap water and in chloride solution on the passivating layer
CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH
Autore/i: Roventi, Gabriella; Bellezze, Tiziano; Giuliani, Giampaolo; Conti, Carla
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The effect ofwet–dry cycles in tapwater and in 3.5% NaCl solution on the passivating products of galvanized steel after concrete carbonation was investigated. The results show that carbonation destroys the passivating layer of calcium hydroxyzincate with the formation of the amorphous products ZnCO3 and Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6, which are also protective. The exposure to wet–dry cycles in tap water after concrete carbonation does not significantly increase the corrosion rate of the galvanized steel with respect to the values measured in non-carbonated concrete. On the contrary, the exposure to chloride solution after concrete carbonation leads to a marked decrease in the chloride threshold for galvanized steel corrosion with respect to that found in non-carbonated concrete.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/201306 Collegamento a IRIS

2013
PROTEZIONE CATODICA DI UN ASSE PORTAELICA DI UNA NAVE TRAMITE ANODI A CORRENTE IMPRESSA
Atti della X edizione delle Giornate Nazionali sulla Corrosione e Protezione
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Roventi, Gabriella
Editore: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia, Milano
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Considerando i fenomeni di corrosione localizzata osservati sull’asse portaelica di una nave, costruito in acciaio 17 4PH, e considerando alcune criticità riscontrate in precedenti test di protezione catodica, eseguita mediante anodi sacrificali, in questo lavoro è stata analizzata l’efficacia della protezione catodica a corrente impressa. La sperimentazione è stata effettuata su un sistema di propulsione di dimensioni reali (lungo più di 3 metri), in cui sono stati installati due fili di titanio attivato, funzionanti da anodi, in direzione longitudinale nell’intercapedine formata da asse e astuccio in vetroresina. L’alimentazione del sistema di protezione catodica è stata effettuata con un potenziostato, che manteneva l’asse a -0,3V vs. SCE. Per simulare le condizioni che si hanno in fase di fermo e di navigazione, i test sono stati eseguiti sia con acqua di mare stagnante che con acqua fatta circolare nell’intercapedine fino alla portata di 40 L/min. Dai risultati ottenuti, si è potuto constatare che l’asse può essere protetto efficacemente sia da entrambi gli anodi, sia mediante l’impiego di uno solo di essi. Questa soluzione può essere considerata più vantaggiosa di quella che prevede l’utilizzo di anodi sacrificali di acciaio dolce, perché non presenta le stesse criticità riscontrate con questi ultimi e inoltre non ha bisogno della loro sostituzione.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/128304 Collegamento a IRIS

2013
Sul comportamento a corrosione delle armature zincate nel calcestruzzo
Pietro Pedeferri e la scuola di corrosione e protezione dei materiali al Politecnico di Milano
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Roventi, Gabriella; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/118272 Collegamento a IRIS

2013
Corrosione dello zinco nel calcestruzzo in condizioni di cabonatazione
Atti della X edizione delle Giornate Nazionali sulla Corrosione e Protezione
Autore/i: Roventi, Gabriella; Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo
Editore: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia, Milano
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Sono state studiate le trasformazioni indotte dal processo di carbonatazione sullo strato di passivazione dello zinco nel calcestruzzo. La ricerca è stata condotta immergendo delle lamine di zinco puro in cubetti di calcestruzzo preparati con cemento Portland 52,5 R. I cubetti sono stati esposti all’aria per 39 giorni e poi messi in camera di carbonatazione per 178 giorni; durante questi periodi sono stati monitorati i potenziali (Ecorr) e le velocità di corrosione (vcorr) dei lamierini. Dopo determinati tempi di esposizione, alcuni cubetti sono stati rotti all’interfaccia metallo-pasta di cemento e le lamine di zinco sono state estratte e sottoposte all’analisi diffrattometrica ai raggi X e all’osservazione al microscopio elettronico a scansione. Nonostante le misure di Ecorr e vcorr non indichino particolari variazioni del comportamento a corrosione dello zinco con la carbonatazione del calcestruzzo, l’analisi diffrattometrica a raggi X e l’osservazione al microscopio elettronico a scansione, effettuate sulla superficie dei lamierini, dimostrano che il processo di cabonatazione del calcestruzzo porta alla distruzione dello strato di CHZ e alla formazione di idrozincite, che ha proprietà passivanti minori del CHZ.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/128303 Collegamento a IRIS

2013
Inhibition of galvanized rebars active corrosion in fresh concrete using hydrogen peroxide
Proceedings of The European Corrosion Congress EUROCORR 2013
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Monosi, Saveria; Roventi, Gabriella; Fratesi, Romeo
Editore: European Federation of Corrosion
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Hydrogen evolution determined by the interaction between galvanized reinforcing bars and cement paste is commonly considered an issue for concrete structures during early-age curing. As a consequence, in this period, the adherence between galvanized rebars and concrete matrix can be lower than that of bare steel bars. This depends on the passivation rate of the zinc coating. The aim of the present work is to find a solution by accelerating the passivation of zinc-based coatings with an oxidizing agent like hydrogen peroxide. The experimentation was performed by monitoring the corrosion potential of galvanized rebars immersed in concrete specimens, where hydrogen peroxide was added. The results showed that the adherence of galvanized rebars with respect to the concrete matrix, at early-age curing, increases with the addition of hydrogen peroxide into the mixture. Nevertheless, it has been found that additions of hydrogen peroxide reduce the compressive strength of the concrete due to the increase in its porosity.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/128306 Collegamento a IRIS

2013
Corrosion resistance of galvanized steel in concrete: effect of wet-dry cycles in chloride solution after carbonation process
Proceedings of The European Corrosion Congress EUROCORR 2013
Autore/i: Roventi, Gabriella; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tiberi, Emanuele; Fratesi, Romeo
Editore: European Federation of Corrosion
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: The effect of chloride ions on corrosion resistance of galvanized steel in carbonated concrete was investigated. Galvanized steel sheets were embedded in cubic concrete specimens manufactured with a 52.5 R Portland cement; after curing in atmosphere for 39 days, the concrete specimens were submitted to carbonation and then to wet-dry cycles both in a 3.5 % NaCl solution and in tap water. Results show that concrete carbonation destroys the passivating layer of calcium hydroxyzincate, with formation of less protective products. Wet-dry cycles in tap water after carbonation do not increase appreciably corrosion rate of galvanized steel with respect to that measured in not carbonated concrete. On the contrary, corrosion rate measurements performed during wet-dry cycles in 3.5 % NaCl solution, after concrete carbonation, indicate that in these conditions galvanized steel is not passive.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/128308 Collegamento a IRIS

2013
Field tests on the cathodic protection of a ship propeller system
LA METALLURGIA ITALIANA
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Roventi, Gabriella
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The efficiency of the cathodic protection of a propeller system, installed in a large-medium sized ship, was investigated. This system is constituted by a 17 4PH propeller shaft, concentrically mounted in an AISI 304 stern tube. Sea water is usually pumped in the interspace between these two metallic parts for cooling the propeller system during navigation, but in the main part of the year it remains stagnant because the ship is berthed in the harbour. Considering that such conditions determined critical localized corrosion phenomena on the propeller system, in this work the efficiency of the cathodic protection, performed by plain steel anodes, was tested. A real propeller system (about 3 m in length) was slightly modified for monitoring the potential in different points by the use of local probes. Even the protection current was suitably monitored. The tests were performed both with stagnant and with moving sea water up to a flow rate of 40 L/min, in order to find the same conditions of the ship during navigation. From the experimental results, the efficiency of the cathodic protection was good even if the circulating water with the higher flow rate represents a critical condition.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/111066 Collegamento a IRIS

2013
Effect of carbonation process on the passivating products of zinc in Ca(OH)2 saturated solution
MATERIALS AND CORROSION
Autore/i: Roventi, Gabriella; Bellezze, Tiziano; Barbaresi, Elisa; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The effect of carbonation process on the passivating layer of zinc in Ca(OH)2 saturated solution was studied. The investigation was performed by means of corrosion potential, corrosion current density, and impedance measurements. To analyze the changes in the passivating layer, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized. The results obtained indicate that the layer of calcium hydroxyzincate (Ca[Zn(OH)3]2 2H2O) (CHZ), which determines the passivity state of zinc both in Ca(OH)2 saturated solution and in concrete, is destroyed by the carbonation process, in agreement with previous results obtained for galvanized steel embedded in concrete. X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy showed that CHZ reaction with CO2 leads to the formation of Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 (hydrozincite) and CaCO3 (calcite). SEM observation confirms the deep transformation in the passivating layer caused by carbonation. Corrosion potential and corrosion current density measurements show that zinc maintains its passive state also after carbonation. However, impedance measurements indicate that hydrozincite has lower passivating properties than calcium hydroxyzincate in the carbonated solution.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/158717 Collegamento a IRIS

2013
Corrosion behaviour of reinforced no-fines concrete
CORROSION SCIENCE
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; Maddalena, Carsana; Bellezze, Tiziano
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The CO2 induced corrosion behavior of no-fines concrete manufactured with three different strength classes and reinforcements is compared. The main results showed that black steel corrodes with rates three times higher with respect to those monitored in the other reinforcements, with higher corrosion rates in lower strength class concretes. The corrosion rates of steel covered by cement grout and galvanized reinforcements are not affected by concrete strength class since they protect themselves with the cement grout coating or zinc passivation, respectively. Among the reinforcements considered in this work, galvanized steel shows the best corrosion behavior.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/88264 Collegamento a IRIS

2013
Localised Corrosion and Cathodic Protection of 17 4PH Propeller Shafts
CORROSION ENGINEERING, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Roventi, Gabriella; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Some 17 4PH propeller shafts showed severe localised corrosion after a long period of time in Ancona harbour. The shaft is concentrically mounted in an AISI 304 stern tube through two rubber bearings. Both 17 4PH and AISI 304 stainless steels were characterised by anodic polarisation in natural sea water, in order to obtain the necessary corrosion parameters for designing a suitable cathodic protection of the propeller system. The cathodic protection effectiveness was tested on a portion (about 1 m long) of this system. Two cathodic protection methods were tested: an impressed current cathodic protection at -0.3 V(SCE) and a galvanic cathodic protection. The tests were performed both in stagnant and in moving sea water and the results showed that these cathodic protection solutions were able to protect the propeller system; in particular some guidelines are suggested for both old and new ships.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/111065 Collegamento a IRIS

2013
Electrodeposition of Zn–SiC nanocomposite coatings
JOURNAL OF APPLIED ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Autore/i: Roventi, Gabriella; Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Zn-SiC composite coatings were obtained on mild steel substrate by electrodeposition technique with high-current efficiency. A slightly acidic chloride bath, containing SiC nanoparticles and gelatine as additive, was used. The electrodeposition was carried out under galvanostatic control with pulsed direct current; the effect of experimental parameters (temperature, average current density and particles concentration) on composition, morphology and structure of the deposit was studied. Coatings were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffractometry and Vickers microhardness measurements. Zn-SiC electrodeposits with the best characteristics were obtained by performing electrodepositions at 45 C, with 20 g L-1 SiC in the bath and with average current density in the range 100-150 mA cm-2. Under these experimental conditions, homogeneous and compact coatings, with low-grain size and SiC content ranging from 1.7 to 2.1 wt%, were found to be electrodeposited. Microhardness measurements showed for these deposits an increase of about 50 % with respect to those without nanoparticles obtained in the same experimental conditions.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/128302 Collegamento a IRIS

2012
Monitoring corrosion in concrete by means of Electrical Resistance Probes
INTERCORR 2012
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Barbaresi, Elisa; Fratesi, Romeo; U., Marinelli
Editore: ABRACO
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Carbonation and chlorides are the main reasons for deterioration of concrete, caused by corrosion of rebars. Controlling the corrosion in concrete by means of a system able to monitor corrosion’s parameters, such as potential, pH or corrosion rate, represents a powerful way to prevent concrete deterioration and to reduce restoration’s cost of the damaged structure. The aim of this work was to test Electrical Resistance Probes (ERP), usually applied to corrosion measurements in pipelines or tanks, by embedding them in concrete to monitor and estimate rebars corrosion rate. Five ERP probes were embedded into two cylindrical concrete samples, together with four steel rebars. The samples were exposed to chloride penetration and carbonation. Free corrosion potential and corrosion rate values of the rebars were monitored, by means of corrosion resistance polarization measurements, in comparison with the loss of metal provided by the ERP system. At first, samples were submitted to accelerated exposition to the aggressive agents, then the exposition was carried forward in “field” conditions and for long time. Comparing rebars corrosion rate with respect to ERP data, the effectiveness of using this kind of probes in concrete was estimated. ERP probes were able to register the start of corrosion with fair precision and good answer quickness.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/87429 Collegamento a IRIS

2012
Studio della durabilità di carter di acciaio cromato affetti da corrosione galvanica
Atti del XI Convegno Nazionale AIMAT
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Roventi, Gabriella; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Su dei carter di acciaio cromato di motori per idropulitrici, sono stati riscontrati dei punti di attacco corrosivo dovuti al fenomeno di accoppiamento galvanico. Per studiare la problematica, sono stati eseguiti parallelamente dei test di immersione prolungata, producendo dei difetti artificiali su alcuni carter, e sono state realizzate, su altri, delle celle elettrochimiche con relativo hardware e software per il monitoraggio della corrente di corrosione galvanica. Ciò allo scopo di avere delle indicazioni quantitative sul tempo di perforazione della lamiera. Dai risultati ottenuti si è evidenziato che l’approccio elettrochimico utilizzato permette di ottenere le indicazioni desiderate, sebbene si sia constatato che le celle costruite non sono idonee per simulare la particolare morfologia di corrosione riscontrata con i test d’immersione.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/82894 Collegamento a IRIS

2012
Chemical transformation of zinc passivating products after carbonation process
EUROCORR 2012 - SAFER WORLD THROUGH BETTER CORROSION CONTROL
Autore/i: Roventi, Gabriella; Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo
Editore: European Federation of Corrosion
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: The composition of passivating products of zinc in Ca(OH)2 saturated solution after carbonation process was studied. In a previous research, carried out on galvanized steel sheets embedded in concrete submitted to carbonation, the layer of calcium hydroxyzincate Ca[Zn(OH)3]2 ⋅2H2O (CHZ), which determines the passivity state of zinc in concrete, was found to be destroyed by carbonation process. However, it wasn’t possible to identify the products resulting from CHZ transformation, because they are no well crystallized. In the present work, Ca(OH)2 saturated solution was used, in place of concrete matrix, to accelerate CHZ reaction with CO2 in order to obtain a greater quantity of the formed compounds to be analyzed by X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. The results obtained indicate that the products of the reaction of CHZ with CO2 are Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 (hydrozincite) and CaCO3 (calcite). Corrosion potential and corrosion rate measurements show that, despite the deep change in the passivating products, zinc maintains its passive state also after carbonation, according to previous results obtained in concrete and according to bibliography.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/82890 Collegamento a IRIS

2012
Prove in campo dell’efficacia della protezione catodica di un asse portaelica di un’imbarcazione
34° CONVEGNO NAZIONALE AIM
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Roventi, Gabriella
Editore: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: La ricerca ha riguardato l’analisi dell’efficacia della protezione catodica di un asse portaelica del motore di imbarcazioni medio-grandi. L’asse è di acciaio inossidabile 17 4PH indurito per precipitazione ed è inserito in un astuccio cilindrico di acciaio inossidabile AISI 304. Nell’intercapedine tra i due componenti si trova acqua di mare, che risulta stagnante per la maggior parte del tempo, poiché tali tipi di imbarcazioni restano ferme in acqua per circa nove mesi all’anno. Considerando che in simili condizioni, più di un asse ha dato luogo a preoccupanti fenomeni di corrosione localizzata, in questo lavoro è stata verificata l’efficacia della protezione catodica utilizzando anodi sacrificali di acciaio comune come metodo preventivo per evitare tale tipo di corrosione. La sperimentazione è stata eseguita su un sistema asse-astuccio di dimensioni reali (di lunghezza di poco superiore ai 3 metri) a cui sono state apportate delle modifiche per permettere il monitoraggio dei potenziali e delle correnti in gioco, al fine di effettuare la valutazione oggetto del presente studio. I test sono stati effettuati sia con acqua di mare stagnante, che con acqua fatta circolare con varie portate fino a 40 L/min per simulare le condizioni che si hanno in fase di navigazione. Dai risultati ottenuti, si è potuto constatare che il sistema asse-astuccio può essere efficacemente protetto con gli anodi di acciaio comune.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/82903 Collegamento a IRIS

2012
Rivestimenti compositi Zn-SiC ottenuti per elettrodeposizione
Atti del XI Convegno Nazionale AIMAT
Autore/i: Roventi, Gabriella; Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Sono stati ottenuti per elettrodeposizione su substrato ferroso rivestimenti compositi di zinco contenente particelle nanometriche (60 nm) di carburo di silicio. Sono state eseguite elettrodeposizioni potenziostatiche utilizzando un bagno comunemente usato dall’industria galvanica per il processo a rotobarile. I risultati mostrano che la percentuale di particelle inglobate è molto bassa (circa lo 0,1 %) e non varia apprezzabilmente al variare del potenziale; le mappe EDX indicano che le particelle sono uniformemente distribuite nel deposito. L’incorporazione del SiC non determina variazioni nei parametri del processo di elettrodeposizione. Nonostante la scarsa quantità di particelle inglobate, le misure di microdurezza mostrano un aumento di circa il 10 % per i rivestimenti contenenti SiC rispetto a quelli di zinco puro.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/82895 Collegamento a IRIS

2012
Rivestimenti elettrolitici di zinco rinforzato con particelle nanometriche di SiC
34° CONVEGNO NAZIONALE AIM
Autore/i: Roventi, Gabriella; Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo
Editore: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Sono stati ottenuti per elettrodeposizione su substrato ferroso rivestimenti compositi di zinco contenente particelle nanometriche (60 nm) di carburo di silicio, per aumentarne la durezza e la resistenza all’abrasione. Le elettrodeposizioni sono state eseguite utilizzando un bagno base ampiamente utilizzato nell’industria galvanica per il processo a rotobarile, con cui viene trattata la minuteria. Al bagno base sono stati aggiunti come additivi sodio dodecilsolfato (SDS 1 g/l) e gelatina 2 g/l. Sono stati variati i diversi parametri operativi e sono state eseguite sia elettrodeposizioni potenziostatiche che galvanostatiche (sia in corrente continua che pulsante). I migliori risultati sono stati ottenuti effettuando le elettrodeposizioni a 45 °C con 20 g/l di particelle nel bagno e con corrente pulsante. In queste condizioni sperimentali sono stati ottenuti rivestimenti con morfologia regolare, grano cristallino fine e una percentuale di SiC compresa tra 1,0 e 2,0 %; le misure di microdurezza, eseguite su questi depositi, hanno dato valori sensibilmente più alti di quelli ottenuti sui rivestimenti senza particelle. A densità di corrente media di deposizione comprese tra 100 e 150 mA/cm2 la microdurezza dei rivestimenti di zinco raggiunge valori di quasi 200 HV.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/82905 Collegamento a IRIS

2012
Layer-by-layer analysis of hot-dip zinc coating by anodic dissolution in acetate bath
SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Saltykov, S; Roventi, Gabriella; Malavolta, Mara; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: To analyze the distribution of the alloying elements in hot-dip zinc coatings, a layer-by-layer electrochemical dissolution method was studied by using an acetate bath. The research was performed by means of galvanostatic anodic polarization, chemical analysis and metallographic analysis. A suitable cell was constructed to perform this study. Results show that the electrochemical dissolution of η-phase is uniform, while δ-phase dissolves partially together ζ-phase, due to the formation of cracks in the coating during polarization. Faraday's law was used to demonstrate that galvanostatic dissolution of hot-dip zinc coating at 12.7mA cm−2 proceeds by electrochemical mechanism without chemical dissolution; on the contrary, the occurrence of this second process was found at lower stripping current density. During polarization, the formation of a black film which interferes with the subsequent dissolution process was found. Mechanical removal of black film from electrode surface leads to the decrease of cracks formation and to a more uniform layer-by-layer dissolution. A method to obtain layer-by-layer analysis of the alloying elements of a hot-dip zinc coating, as a function of its thickness, by controlled electrochemical dissolution is suggested.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/75060 Collegamento a IRIS

2011
Effetto della carbonatazione sui prodotti passivanti dello zinco in soluzione satura di Ca(OH)2
Atti della IX edizione delle Giornate Nazionali sulla Corrosione e Protezione
Autore/i: Roventi, Gabriella; Barbaresi, Elisa; Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo
Editore: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia
Luogo di pubblicazione: Milano
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/66541 Collegamento a IRIS

2011
Studio della corrosione localizzata e della protezione catodica su un sistema ‘asse-astuccio’ relativo al motore di un’imbarcazione
Atti della IX edizione delle Giornate Nazionali sulla Corrosione e Protezione
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Malavolta, Mara; Fratesi, Romeo
Editore: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia
Luogo di pubblicazione: Milano
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/66537 Collegamento a IRIS

2011
Effect of concrete carbonation process on the passivating products of galvanized steel reinforcements
MATERIALS AND CORROSION
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Roventi, Gabriella; Barbaresi, Elisa; Ruffini, Nadia; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The composition of passivating products on galvanized steel reinforcement in concrete during carbonation was studied. Cube-shaped concrete specimens were manufactured with Portland 52.5 R cement and reinforced with hot-dip galvanized steel sheets obtained from pure Zn and Zn-Sn-Bi-Ni alloy bath. The concrete specimens were exposed to air curing for 28 days and then to the carbonation chamber. Corrosion rate and potential measurements were performed both during the curing in air and exposure in a carbonation chamber. At defined periods of time, some concrete specimens were broken and the galvanized steel sheets were submitted to XRD, SEM observations and EDX analysis. The growth of the passivation products was evaluated by integrating the diffraction peaks. XRD analysis and SEM observations show that the layer of calcium hydroxyzincate (CaHZn), formed on the galvanized sheets during the air curing, is destroyed by the concrete carbonation process. However, potential measurements indicate that the galvanized steel always remains in the passive state. X-ray diffractometry was not able to identify the new passivating product; EDX maps suggest the presence of zinc carbonates.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/57096 Collegamento a IRIS

2011
Utilizzo di sonde ERP per il monitoraggio della corrosione in calcestruzzo armato
Atti della IX edizione delle Giornate Nazionali sulla Corrosione e Protezione
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Barbaresi, Elisa; Fratesi, Romeo
Editore: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia
Luogo di pubblicazione: Milano
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/66539 Collegamento a IRIS

2011
Dispersori e impatto ambientale
Autore/i: Fava, Gabriele; Fratesi, Romeo; Bellezze, Tiziano
Classificazione: 5 Altro
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/57628 Collegamento a IRIS

2011
Analisi della distribuzione degli elementi in lega nei rivestimenti di zinco a caldo tramite polarizzazione anodica
Atti della IX edizione delle Giornate Nazionali sulla Corrosione e Protezione
Autore/i: S., Saltykov; Bellezze, Tiziano; Ruffini, Nadia; Roventi, Gabriella
Editore: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia
Luogo di pubblicazione: Milano
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/66538 Collegamento a IRIS

2011
Studio dell’accoppiamento galvanico tra armature zincate e cassero metallico nel calcestruzzo fresco
Atti della IX edizione delle Giornate Nazionali sulla Corrosione e Protezione
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Barbaresi, Elisa; Fratesi, Romeo; Roventi, Gabriella
Editore: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia
Luogo di pubblicazione: Milano
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/66540 Collegamento a IRIS

2010
Comportamento a corrosione di leghe di alluminio impiegate in scambiatori di calore
Atti del 33° Convegno Nazionale AIM
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Malavolta, Mara; Ruffini, Nadia; Fratesi, Romeo
Editore: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia
Luogo di pubblicazione: Milano
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/57620 Collegamento a IRIS

2010
Assessing the efficiency of galvanic cathodic protection inside domestic boilers by means of local probes
CORROSION SCIENCE
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The efficiency of cathodic protection implemented through magnesium anodes has been investigated inside a 100 L domestic boiler, as a function of temperature (18-60 °C) and of water conductivity (50-500 uS/cm). Continuous monitoring of potentials and partial currents, corresponding to all metallic parts of the boiler and to six local probes, installed on the critical points of the tank, has been carried out. Cathodic protection is more efficient increasing water conductivity (500 uS/cm) and further low conductivities (50 uS/cm) tend to increase the probability of tank failure in a relatively short time, even in presence of magnesium anodes protection.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/39904 Collegamento a IRIS

2010
Realizzazione e studio di una multisonda resistiva per il monitoraggio dell’umidità nel calcestruzzo
Atti del 10° Convegno Nazionale AIMAT, Capo Vaticano 5-8 Settembre 2010
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Barbaresi, Elisa; Fratesi, Romeo
Editore: Centro Editoriale e Librario Università della Calabria
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/57104 Collegamento a IRIS

2010
Influenza degli elementi bassofondenti presenti nel bagno di zincatura sulle caratteristiche meccaniche dell’acciaio zincato
Atti del 10° Convegno Nazionale AIMAT
Autore/i: Fratesi, Romeo; S., Papalini; Bellezze, Tiziano; Ruffini, Nadia; Malavolta, Mara
Editore: Centro Editoriale e Librario Università della Calabria
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/57111 Collegamento a IRIS

2010
Protezione catodica all’interno di boiler domestici
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Ruffini, Nadia; A., Mancini
Classificazione: 5 Altro
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/57626 Collegamento a IRIS

2010
Investigation of the major reduction reaction occuring during the passivation of galvanized steel rebars
CORROSION SCIENCE
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; Bellezze, Tiziano
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The corrosion behaviour of zinc plates immersed in calcium hydroxide saturated solutions in the presence of oxygen, air and nitrogen, respectively, was studied. The corrosion resistance was monitored by potentials and corrosion rate measurements. The results obtained were confirmed by further data collected on galvanized rebars embedded in concrete and stored in different curing environments. The results clearly show that oxygen is the main oxidizing agent and indeed not water for the rapid formation of an effective passivation layer on zinc coating.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53394 Collegamento a IRIS

2009
Indagine sull’efficacia di un sistema di protezione catodica ad anodi di magnesio all’interno di boiler domestici
Atti della VIIIa edizione delle Giornate Nazionali sulla Corrosione e Protezione
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; N., Ruffini; A., Mancini
Editore: AIM
Luogo di pubblicazione: UDINE
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53241 Collegamento a IRIS

2009
Characterization of passivation products on galvanized steel reinforcements in conditions of concrete carbonation
Proceedings of The European Corrosion Congress "EUROCORR 2009"
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Roventi, Gabriella; E., Barbaresi; N., Ruffini; Fratesi, Romeo
Luogo di pubblicazione: NIZZA (FRANCIA)
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/52322 Collegamento a IRIS

2009
Resistenza alla corrosione atmosferica di acciai inossidabili con diverse finiture superficiali (Atmospheric corrosion resistance of stainless steels with different surface finishing)
LA METALLURGIA ITALIANA
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; A., Quaranta; Roventi, Gabriella; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Thank to its mechanical and aesthetical characteristics, stainless steel is an interesting material suitable for large scale applications in the different building fields. Actually, there are many peculiarities of stainless steel, appreciated in construction and architectural sectors, starting from its extraordinary corrosion resistance, even in particularly aggressive environments, up to large availability of surface finishing obtained after submitting it to different technological cycles. In the present work, the effect produced by the surface finishing on the localized corrosion resistance of some stainless steels (AISI 304, AISI 316, AISI 430, AISI 443 and AISI 444) with 2B, BA and SB ("Scotch Bright") finishing was investigated. The study was performed by means of atmospheric exposure according to UNI EN ISO 8565 Italian regulation, using an urban-marine atmosphere as exposure environment, characterized by the presence of chlorides and traces of combustion gases. The atmospheric corrosion was expressed as percentage of "surface damage" due to red rust as a function of time and determined by using a suitable RGB filter on corroded sample pictures. Furthermore, a series of anodic potentiodynamic polarizations were performed (scan rate 0.166 mV/s) in a NaCl solution, 1% by weight; such polarizations have been started from -50 mV with respect to free corrosion potential up to the achievement of the current density threshold equal to 0.01 mA/ cm2, where the scan has been reversed up to the corrosion potential. In this way, in addition to the corrosion potential, the pitting and the protection potential were obtained, with which a ranking among stainless steels, together with their finishing, was made possible. Among the tested materials, the samples of ferritic steel AISI 430 showed the worst atmospheric corrosion resistance, independently from their surface finishing (SB or BA), indicating that they can not absolutely used for external urban-marine environments. With particular reference to BA finishing, better results were definitely obtained for AISI 443 ferritic steel (with the highest chromium content) and for AISI 444 ferritic steel (with percentages of chromium and molybdenum comparable to those of AISI 316 austenitic steel). The performances of these alloys, in terms of localized corrosion resistance, resulted completely comparable with those of austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 BA and AISI 316 BA and therefore these ferritic stainless steels can be considered for their use in place of these last ones (more expensive for the presence of nickel) in those applications where there is atmospheric exposure. Furthermore, for the tested ferritic stainless steels, the chemical composition (content of chromium and molybdenum) was more important than their surface finishing. Instead, the effect produced by surface finishing was particularly significant in the case of austenitic stainless steels, whose specimens with 2B finishing were more attacked with respect to specimens with BA finishing in the urban-marine atmosphere. The comparison between the two types of tests allows the conclusion that the electrochemical technique of anodic polarization is a fast and effective alternative to atmospheric exposure of the tested specimens, even if further studies are necessary. This is due to a certain disagreement between some results obtained with these experimental methods.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/51973 Collegamento a IRIS

2009
Studio diffrattometrico sulla crescita dei prodotti di passivazione delle armature zincate nel calcestruzzo
Atti della VIIIa edizione delle Giornate Nazionali sulla Corrosione e Protezione
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Roventi, Gabriella; E., Barbaresi; M., Malavolta; Fratesi, Romeo
Editore: AIM
Luogo di pubblicazione: UDINE
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/50526 Collegamento a IRIS

2008
Characterization of passivation products on galvanized steel reinforcements in concrete
Proceedings of The European Corrosion Congress "EUROCORR 2008"
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Roventi, Gabriella; E., Barbaresi; N., Ruffini; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Atti su CD-ROM
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/52935 Collegamento a IRIS

2008
Monitoraggio non distruttivo della carbonatazione del calcestruzzo mediante sonde di titanio attivato
Atti del 9° Convegno Nazionale AIMAT
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; E., Barbaresi; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53451 Collegamento a IRIS

2008
Improvement of pitting corrosion resistance of AISI 444 stainless steel to make it a possible substitute for AISI 304L and 316L in hot natural waters
MATERIALS AND CORROSION
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Roventi, Gabriella; A., Quaranta; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The pitting corrosion resistance of AISI 444, 304L and 316L stainless steels in two tap waters with different chloride concentrations at 80 °C was studied. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out starting from Ecorr - 30 mV until the current density reached 0.1 mA cm-2 (scan rate 0.166 mV s-1); the scan was then reversed and continued until new passivity conditions were achieved. The corrosion potential was measured before the polarization experiments. From the E-log i plots, the values of pitting and protection potential were obtained; from these potentials, the perfect and the imperfect passivity regions were defined to compare the corrosion resistance of the studied steels. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed both on as received stainless steel samples and on samples submitted to different cleaning-passivation treatments to improve their corrosion resistance. The results indicate that, for industrial production, AISI 444 stainless steel can substitute the more expensive AISI 304L or 316L after a cleaning-passivation treatment that reduces the presence of inclusions.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/50721 Collegamento a IRIS

2008
Studio della corrosione interstiziale degli acciai inossidabili AISI 316L, AISI 304L e AISI 444 (A study on crevice corrosion of AISI 316L, AISI 304L and AISI 444 stainless steels)
LA METALLURGIA ITALIANA
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Quaranta, A.; Roventi, Gabriella; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The development in the industrial production of tanks for hot natural water is addressed to the use of stainless steels with high localized corrosion resistance and low costs. The very low nickel content of AISI 444 stainless steel leads to costs lower than those of AISI 304L and 316L; consequently, it seems suitable to substitute these latter steels for industrial production. In the present work, crevice corrosion resistance of AISI 316L and 304L austenitic stainless steels and AISI 444 ferritic stainless steel was studied by means of immersion tests in FeCl3 and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests in Cl 1000 mg dm-3 solution. The immersion tests in FeCl 3 1% wt. were carried out at 40 °C using steel sheet samples (25 × 30 mm) with two PTFE crevice formers assembled on the surfaces by means of two O-rings (Fig. 1). Corrosion potential (Ecorr) of the samples was regularly measured during the test. After different immersion times, some samples were pulled out from the solution and weighed, after removing the corrosion products, to measure the weight loss. Polarization tests were performed at 80 °C in Cl 1000 mg dm-3 solution both on samples with crevice former and samples without crevice former (Fig. 2) in order to evaluate crevice and pitting corrosion resistance. The exposed area (2 × 2 cm) was well-defined by shielding the unexposed parts with an epoxy resin resistant to high temperatures. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out starting from Ecorr - 30 mV until the current density reached 1 mA cm2 (scan rate 0.166 mV s-1); the scan was then reversed and continued until new passivity conditions were achieved. The corrosion potential was measured before the polarization experiments. From the E-log i plots, the values of pitting (Epit), crevice (Ecrev) and protection (Eprot) potential were obtained; from these potentials, the perfect and the imperfect passivity regions were defined. All the tests were performed both on as received stainless steel samples and on samples submitted to a cleaning-passivation treatment by immersion in a solution containing HF and HNO3, to improve their corrosion resistance. The weight loss measurements in FeCl 3 solution (Fig. 3) indicate that AISI 444 is the steel with the lowest corrosion resistance and that the passivation treatment leads to a decrease in corrosion resistance both for AISI 444 and AISI 304L. These results are not confirmed by the corrosion potential values measured during the fist 25 h of immersion In fact, corrosion potentials of the as received AISI 444 and AISI 304L steels (Fig. 4) are lower than those of the passivated samples (Fig. 5), indicating that the passivation treatment increases their corrosion resistance. No remarkable difference was observed for passivated AISI 316L samples with respect to the as received ones. Fig. 6 shows the trend of Epit (as received and passivated steels tested without crevice former), Ecrev (as received and passivated steels tested with crevice former), Eprot and Ecorr obtained from the cyclic polarization curves. Between the as received steels (Fig. 6a), AISI 304L shows the highest pitting corrosion potential whereas AISI 444 and AISI 316L show almost the same pitting resistance. The trend of the Ecrev values of the as received steels, obtained with crevice former (Fig. 6b), is similar to that obtained without crevice former (Fig. 6a), even if all the Ecrev values are lower than the corresponding Epit values. The passivation treatment increases both the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance, in particular those of AISI 444 (Fig. 6c and 6d respectively). Polarization test results indicate that the passivated AISI 444 can be suitable to substitute the austenitic stainless steels in hot natural waters which are not particularly aggressive. The contrast between these results and those obtained with the weight loss measurements in FeCl3 is probably due to the fact that this last solution is much too aggressive to study the effect of the surface finishing on the localized corrosion resistance of the stainless steels.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/50153 Collegamento a IRIS

2008
Resistenza alla corrosione atmosferica di acciai inossidabili con diverse finiture superficiali
Atti del 32° Convegno Nazionale AIM, Ferrara 24-26 settembre 2008
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; A., Quaranta; Roventi, Gabriella; Fratesi, Romeo
Editore: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia, Milano
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Nel presente lavoro è stata valutata l’influenza della finitura superficiale sulla resistenza alla corrosione localizzata di alcune tipologie di acciaio inossidabile (AISI 304, AISI 316, AISI 430, AISI 443 e AISI 444) con finiture superficiali 2B, BA e “Scotch-Bright” (SB). Lo studio è stato condotto tramite un’esposizione atmosferica in ambiente urbano-marino ed una serie di polarizzazioni anodiche in NaCl 1%, al fine di classificare i diversi acciai inossidabili in base alla resistenza a corrosione localizzata per pitting. Nel caso degli acciai inossidabili austenitici, l’effetto sulla resistenza a corrosione esercitato dalla finitura superficiale si è dimostrato determinante; invece, nel caso degli acciai inossidabili ferritici, tale effetto è risultato secondario rispetto a quello prodotto dal contenuto di cromo e molibdeno. Le prestazioni in atmosfera degli acciai inossidabili ferritici AISI 444 BA e 443 BA sono risultate particolarmente interessanti e del tutto paragonabili a quelle dei più costosi acciai inossidabili austenitici AISI 316 BA e AISI 304 BA, tanto da poterli considerare come loro possibili sostituti. Il confronto tra i risultati ottenuti con i due tipi di prove permette di concludere che il metodo elettrochimico della polarizzazione anodica è una rapida ed efficace alternativa all’esposizione in atmosfera dei campioni studiati, anche se sono necessari ulteriori approfondimenti.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/49091 Collegamento a IRIS

2008
Resistenza alla corrosione atmosferica di acciai inossidabili con finitura superficiale "scotch-brite"
9° Convegno Nazionale AIMAT 2008
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; A., Quaranta; Roventi, Gabriella; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/50861 Collegamento a IRIS

2007
Corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel rebars in the presence of coating discontinuities
European Federation of Corrosion Publications Number 38Corrosion of reinforcement in concrete Mechanism, monitoring, inhibitors and rehabilitation techniques
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: Woodhead Publishing Limited
Luogo di pubblicazione: CAMBRIDGE
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/50367 Collegamento a IRIS

2006
Configurazione e parametri di esercizio di un sistema di protezione catodica a correnti impresse all’interno di scaldaacqua domestici (Service parameters and configuration of a cathodic protection system using impressed current technique inside domestic boilers)
LA METALLURGIA ITALIANA
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; R., Fratesi; R., Sampaolesi; A., Mancini; A., Stopponi
Editore: -Milano: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia. -Edimet:Via Corfu 102, I 25124 Brescia Italy:011 39 030 2421043, EMAIL: info@edimet.com, INTERNET: http://www.edimet.com, Fax: 011 39 030 223802
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The necessity for highly durable electric boilers used for domestic purposes implies the study of cathodic protection systems with higher efficiency against corrosion phenomena, responsible for the failure of both the steel tank for the accumulation of hot water, internally coated with a vitreous enamel, and of the heating-elements sheathing made of stainless alloys. Among the different methods used for the corrosion protection of these metallic materials, other than the possible superficial treatments, there is the possibility to apply a cathodic protection. In the case of domestic boilers, this type of protection can be performed both by sacrificial anodes and by an impressed current technique. In this work, a cathodic protection system, using an impressed current supplied with an activated titanium anode, commonly used inside domestic boilers, was studied (Fig. 1). In more detail, the efficiency of the cathodic protection was examined as a function of the anode "low" (B) and "high" (A) position, of the current supplied by itself and of the water hardness (Tab. 1). With this aim, different workstations were installed in order to monitor the potential and partial current values corresponding to the several metallic parts which make up the boilers submitted to an accelerated "lifecycles" test, where the service pressure was higher than the atmospheric pressure ("closed" boilers, "C" Tab. 1) and therefore the same as that present in common domestic applications (3 ÷ 4 bar). In some cases, a given number of tests were executed with "opened" boilers ("A" Tab. 1) on the top, operating at atmospheric pressure; as a consequence, the potential measurements inside these last boilers were performed by immersion of a long-stemmed saturated calomel reference electrode. Instead, in the case of common "closed" boilers the potential measurements were performed by an Ag\AgCl reference electrode installed in the water tank walls (Fig. 1). All the boilers used in this investigation were submitted to an accelerated "life-cycles" test which consisted in cyclic hot water withdrawal when the temperature value set in the thermostat was reached, thanks to the opening of an electromagnetic valve suitably connected with the electric power supply of the heating-element used. Subsequently, with replacement of water in the tank with new cold water, the thermostatic probe reached a minimum temperature which caused the reactivation of the heating-element in parallel with the electromagnetic valve closure thus determining the onset of a new heating cycle. With all these steps, the test continued with a series of subsequent "hot-cold" cycles. From this investigation, the cathodic protection was effective for the different metallic parts of the boiler within a few days from the beginning of the test. This efficiency is higher with increasing water hardness, with the titanium anode farther from the heating-elements base and when the current of the cathodic protection system is highest (Table 2 and Fig. 10). Furthermore, if this experimentation is performed with "opened" boilers, the data obtained from the tests are not suitable for studying their behaviour during their real service life, where "closed" boilers are normally used. In fact, where some experimental conditions resulted critical for the cathodic protection of the "closed" boilers, these same conditions gave no problems for the cathodic protection of the "opened" boilers.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/39427 Collegamento a IRIS

2006
Corrosion behaviour in concrete of three differently galvanized steel bars
CEMENT & CONCRETE COMPOSITES
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; M., Malavolta; A., Quaranta; N., Ruffini; Roventi, Gabriella
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The increasing use of galvanized steel reinforcements in concrete structures submitted to aggressive environments induces research into innovative zinc coatings with higher corrosion resistance. In this work, several cylindrical concrete specimens were manufactured with two cements of different alkalinity and reinforced with different hot-dip galvanized bars obtained from the “traditional” Zn-Pb bath and from two “modified baths”: Zn-Ni-Bi and Zn-Ni-Sn-Bi. The corrosion rate and corrosion potential of the bars were monitored during the air curing period and during wet-dry exposure both in tap water and in a 5% sodium chloride solution. The results showed that the coatings obtained from Zn-Ni-Sn-Bi bath have the highest corrosion rates, when the aggressiveness of the concrete matrix is determined mainly by its alkalinity. On the contrary, when the corrosion process is determined mainly by the penetration of chlorides (concrete manufactured with cement having a low alkali content) Zn-Ni-Sn-Bi was attacked only when the chloride concentration at the concrete cover depth reached the threshold of 4.02 % (by weight of cement), which is higher than those necessary for the attack of the other coatings studied (1.36 % for Zn-Ni-Bi, 1.73 % for Zn-Pb).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/52922 Collegamento a IRIS

2006
Distribution of alloying elements in hot dip galvanized coatings
21th International Galvanizing Conference
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Malavolta, M; Ruffini, N.
Editore: EGGA
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53376 Collegamento a IRIS

2006
Electrochemical study on the pitting corrosion resistance of some stainless steels in hot natural waters
9th International Symposium “Electrochemical Methods in Corrosion Research” EMCR 2006
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Roventi, Gabriella; A., Quaranta; R., Fratesi
Luogo di pubblicazione: DOURDAIN
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53581 Collegamento a IRIS

2006
Protezione catodica di boiler per la produzione di acqua calda sanitaria in condizioni simulanti un impiego reale
31° Convegno Nazionale AIM
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Sampaolesi, R; Mancini, A. STOPPONI A.
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Atti in CD-ROM
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/52047 Collegamento a IRIS

2006
Electrochemical study on the inhibitory effect of the underpotential deposition of zinc on Zn-Co alloy electrodeposition
ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA
Autore/i: Roventi, Gabriella; Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Zn-Co alloy codeposition from chloride baths containing different Zn2+/Co2+ ratios was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and anodic linear sweep voltammetry using a Pt electrode. The peaks were attributed by means of EDX analysis, SEM and TEM observations performed on some alloys potentiostatically deposited. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the cathodic peak, observed previously by means of potentiostatic tests in the range of potential where zinc deposits underpotential, is a complex peak with one maximum and two shoulders, correlated with the deposition of different cobalt rich alloys. Up to four anodic peaks, two correlated with zinc oxidation from η and γ phases and two correlated with oxidation of solid solutions of zinc in cobalt, were observed. ALSV and TEM indicated that the remarkable increase in Zn content of the alloy, which occurs with a strong inhibition of the process at potentials more negative than that of the cathodic peak and more positive than the bulk deposition potential of zinc, is due to the deposition of γ phase. No inhibition of the alloy deposition process was observed with very low concentrations of zinc (<0.015 M) in the bath containing 0.19 M Co2+.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53123 Collegamento a IRIS

2006
Investigation on the corrosion resistance of galvanized steel bars in concrete during wet-dry cycles exposure
8° Convegno Nazionale AIMAT 2006
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; M., Malavolta; A., Quaranta; N., Ruffini; Roventi, Gabriella
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Atti in CD-ROM
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53523 Collegamento a IRIS

2006
Galvanized tubes for drinkable water: study of new alloys
8° Convegno Nazionale AIMAT 2006
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Giuliani, G; Malavolta, M; Ruffini, N.
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Atti in CD-ROM
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/50406 Collegamento a IRIS

2005
Resistenza alla corrosione atmosferica di acciai inossidabili di largo impiego (ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION RESISTANCE OF STAINLESS STEELS SUITABLE FOR MANY APPLICATIONS)
LA METALLURGIA ITALIANA
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Roventi, Gabriella; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The high corrosion resistance, good aesthetic aspect and good moldability has favoured the use of stainless steels in various market sectors. In the last few years, the use of stainless steels has become important also in the building trade, which has expanded their outdoor use. In this work, the atmospheric corrosion behaviour of two stainless steels (AISI 304 e AISI 316L) was studied. Several steel sheets, 10×15 cm in size and with two different standard surface finishings (2B e BA), were exposed to different natural atmospheres (marine, marine-urban and urban), by means of suitable exposure racks. Salt spray tests and anodic polarizations in NaCl 3,5 % were also carried out. A very slight corrosion attack was observed on the stainless steels with BA finishing in marine atmosphere, while the same steels remained substantially unattacked in the marine-urban and urban atmospheres. Among the samples with 2B finishing, those exposed close to the sea were the most damaged, followed by those exposed to the marine-urban atmosphere and then by those exposed to the urban atmosphere. At the end of the exposure time (133 days) in the marine atmosphere, AISI 316 L steel showed the same corrosion attack as AISI 304, which is less resistant at the beginning. On the contrary, AISI 304 steel with BA finishing showed good corrosion resistance, if it is not used very close to the sea. The results indicate that the stainless steels roughness and surface finishing strongly affect the corrosion resistance, in spite of their high chromium content. In particular, the use of the austenitic steels with 26 finishing is not indicated for outdoor applications, even far-away from the coast, because they are obtained by means of a technology intrinsically unsuitable for this purpose. In fact, the pickling treatment, necessary after solution annnealing treatment, makes their surface characteristic worse, because it forms some cracks at the grain boundary, where pitting corrosion can initiate. The advantage offered by the more expensive AISI 316 L steel with the same finishing is quite scarce. The anodic polarization data, in good agreement with the results of other authors, indicates that a low pitting potential and a higher probability of metastable pit initiation are correlated with a higher surface roughness. The salt spray tests did not let to an appreciable corrosive attack on the exposed samples; so this test does not appear suitable for simulating atmospheric exposure, because it not able to reproduce the wet-dry cycles. The morphological observation showed that atmospheric pitting corrosion proceeds by increasing the number of attacked areas, rather than by the growth of a damaged area. This phenomenon, which causes loss in brightness of the steels and the formation of corrosion spots, only affects the steel surface layers without worsening the functional characteristics.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/51232 Collegamento a IRIS

2005
Analisi dei casi di ‘failure’ di corazze di resistenze riscaldanti in condizioni di prova accelerata
6° edizione delle Giornate Nazionali di Corrosione e Protezione 2005
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Sampaolesi, R; Mancini, A; Stopponi, A.
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Atti in CD-ROM
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53757 Collegamento a IRIS

2005
Configurazione e parametri di esercizio di un sistema di protezione catodica a correnti impresse all'interno di scaldaacqua domestici
Giornate Nazionali sulla Corrosione e Protezione
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Sampaolesi, R; Mancini, A; Stopponi, A.
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/43378 Collegamento a IRIS

2004
Corrosion of AISI 321 thermostat sheath in boilers employed for hot water production: a case history
VII National AIMAT Congress 2004
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Mancini, A.
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Atti in CD-ROM
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/51609 Collegamento a IRIS

2004
Effect of chemical-physical interaction between galvanized steel fibers and concrete
Proceedings PRO 39 of the Sixth Rilem Symposium on Fibre-Reinforced Concrete (FRC), BEFIB 2004, Varenna, Lake Como, Italy, 20-22 September 2004
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Failla, C.
Editore: M. di Prisco, R. Felicetti, G. Plizzari
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Il contributo è stato sottoposto a giudizio di referee prima della pubblicazione.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/52782 Collegamento a IRIS

2004
Effect of the surface finishing on the corrosion resistance of heating-element sheating
VII° Congresso AIMAT
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Roventi, Gabriella; Fratesi, Romeo; Stopponi, A.
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53599 Collegamento a IRIS

2004
Electrochemical characterization of three corrosion-resistant alloys after processing for heating-element sheating.
ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Roventi, Gabriella; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The development in the production of heating-element sheathing to be used for domestic boilers is addressed to replace traditional copper with corrosion-resistant Fe-Cr-Ni based alloys. Here, an electrochemical study was carried out by recording the anodic polarization curves of three corrosion-resistant alloys (Incoloy 800, Incoloy 825 and Sanicro 28) in three tap waters having different chloride concentrations. The process used to produce heating-element sheathing consists of different steps (mechanical forming, welding and heat treatment) which lead to modifications to the material. Hence, tests were performed on samples taken after each processing step. Some tests were performed on samples submitted, after the end of the working process, to laboratory treatments (removal of the surface oxide and passivation). Pitting and protection potential were obtained from cyclic voltammetry. The corrosion potential was measured before the polarization experiments. From these potentials, the perfect and the imperfect passivity regions were obtained. The results showed that Incoloy 825, less expensive than Sanicro 28, has about the same corrosion resistance and so it appears to be the best material for this application even in aggressive tap water.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/51490 Collegamento a IRIS

2003
Study of coupling effects between galvanized steel and black steel bars in reinforced concrete structure
The European Corrosion Congress (EUROCORR 2003)
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Atti in CD-ROM
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53408 Collegamento a IRIS

2003
Electrochemical characterization of three corrosion-resistant alloys after the different working process steps of heat-element sheatings
8th International Symposium “Electrochemical Methods in Corrosion Research” EMCR2003
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Roventi, Gabriella; R., Fratesi
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/47589 Collegamento a IRIS

2003
Progress in the study of Al-Sn-Bi alloy in hot-dip galvanizing
20th International Galvanizing Conference
Autore/i: Fratesi, Romeo; N., Ruffini; M., Malavolta; Bellezze, Tiziano
Editore: EGGA
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/52833 Collegamento a IRIS

2003
Improved durability in precast elements exposed to very aggressive environments
Two-Day International Seminar on "Sustainable development in cement and concrete industries"
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Troli, R; Brecciaroli, A. G.
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/52622 Collegamento a IRIS

2002
Valutazione dell'efficacia anticorrosiva di trattamenti superficiali a base di Cr(III) su acciaio zincato a caldo
5a edizione delle Giornate Nazionali sulla “CORROSIONE e PROTEZIONE”
Autore/i: Valentini, F; Fratesi, Romeo; Bellezze, Tiziano
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53831 Collegamento a IRIS

2002
Caratterizzazione elettrochimica di leghe inossidabili utilizzate per la corazza di resistenze elettriche
5a edizione delle Giornate Nazionali sulla “CORROSIONE e PROTEZIONE”
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Malavolta, M; Ruffini, N.
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/52127 Collegamento a IRIS

2002
Comportamento a corrosione di corazze di resistenze elettriche utilizzate per la produzione di acqua sanitaria
VI° Convegno Nazionale AIMAT
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53052 Collegamento a IRIS

2002
Zincatura a caldo: verifica dell’efficacia di leghe innovative Zn-Ni-Bi in campo industriale
6° Convegno Nazionale AIMAT
Autore/i: N., Ruffini; M., Malavolta; Bellezze, Tiziano; F., Valentini
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/47353 Collegamento a IRIS

2002
Studio elettrochimico di rivestimenti organici di applicazione industriale
VI° Convegno Nazionale AIMAT
Autore/i: Valentini, F; Roventi, Gabriella; Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/52122 Collegamento a IRIS

2002
Application of sodium monofluorophosphate as inhibiting treatment against active corrosion induced by chlorides in reiforced concrete structures
5th International Symposium on Cement and Concrete
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; G., Moriconi; R., Fratesi; Bellezze, Tiziano
Editore: Tongji University Press
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/43304 Collegamento a IRIS

2002
Contemporary use of Ni and Bi in hot-dip galvanizing
SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY
Autore/i: Fratesi, Romeo; N., Ruffini; M., Malavolta; Bellezze, Tiziano
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Five series of commercially hot-rolled mild steels, with different silicon and phosphorus content, were tested in four industrial hot-dip galvanizing plants with different bath compositions: two innovative alloys containing low percentages of Ni and Bi (Ni ≈ 0.04% and Bi ≈ 0.1%), one alloy containing Ni (≈ 0.05%) and a traditional Zn-Pb (Pb ≈ 1.1%) alloy. The coatings obtained were studied by chemical analysis, thickness measurements and by metallographic technique observation. The Zn-Ni-Bi alloy gave very interesting results with all the steels tested. Indeed, the steel reactivity and the coating thickness in the two innovative baths were always lower than those obtained by the traditional Zn-Pb bath and similar to those obtained with the bath containing Ni (Technigalva). These results have been attributed to a synergistic effect of Ni and Bi on the reactivity control of the reactive steels; in fact, even a low Ni content gives the same or even better results than the classical Zn-Ni bath, except for high phosphorus steels. Furthermore, Bi is not detrimental to human health and the environment and can be considered a very good alternative to Pb to improve bath fluidity.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/51742 Collegamento a IRIS

2002
Application of Sodium Monofluorophosphate as Inhibiting Treatment against Active Corrosion induced by Chlorides in Reinforced Concrete Structures
Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Cement and Concrete
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; Moriconi, Giacomo; Fratesi, R.; Bellezze, Tiziano
Editore: Tongji University Press
Luogo di pubblicazione: SHANGHAI
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/51627 Collegamento a IRIS

2002
Electrochemical study on the corrosion of Cr III-based conversion layers on zinc coatings
SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; G., Roventi; R., Fratesi
Editore: Elsevier BV:PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam Netherlands:011 31 20 4853757, 011 31 20 4853642, 011 31 20 4853641, EMAIL: nlinfo-f@elsevier.nl, INTERNET: http://www.elsevier.nl, Fax: 011 31 20 4853598
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Zinc coatings submitted to a Cr III-based passivation treatment, with and without a sealing treatment, were studied. For comparison, similar coatings with a Cr VI-based passivation treatment were also examined. The corrosion behaviour was studied by polarization resistance (Rp) measurements, anodic polarization and mainly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in aerated 0.85 M NaCl solution. Salt spray tests and morphological observations on the coating surface were also performed. The results indicate that the Cr III passivated coatings with sealing treatments have a corrosion resistance comparable with that of coatings with a Cr VI passivation treatment without a sealant; therefore, they could be a less polluting alternative to the traditional chromated coatings.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/39899 Collegamento a IRIS

2002
Resistenza a fatica e alla corrosione di barre d'armatura zincate in condizioni simulanti la realtà.
giornate aicap 2002, 22° Convegno Nazionale
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Franzoni, C; Fratesi, Romeo; Plizzari, G.
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/51653 Collegamento a IRIS

2002
Effect of alluminium, tin and bismuth in hot dip galvanizing
EGGA Assembly 2002
Autore/i: Fratesi, Romeo; Ruffini, N; Malavolta, M; Bellezze, Tiziano
Editore: European General Galvanizers Association
Luogo di pubblicazione: MAYBROOK HOUSE,CATERHAM
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53687 Collegamento a IRIS

2002
Studio finalizzato all’incremento di durabilità di strutture prefabbricate in calcestruzzo armato
14° Congresso C.T.E.
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Troli, R; Brecciaroli, A. G.
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53811 Collegamento a IRIS

2001
Caratterizzazione morfologica e di resistenza a corrosione di rivestimenti a base di zinco sottoposti a diversi trattamenti di conversione chimica
Giornate dell’Elettrochimica Italiana 2001
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Premio di Dottorato “Fondazione De Nora"
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/47546 Collegamento a IRIS

2001
Durability study of some industrial "duplex" systems
The European Corrosion Congress (Eurocorr 2001)
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Roventi, Gabriella; F., Valentini
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Edizione su supporto CD a cura dell’Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53685 Collegamento a IRIS

2001
EIS study of new conversion layers on zinc coatings obtained with innovative treatments
5th International Symposium on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Roventi, Gabriella; F., Valentini
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/52096 Collegamento a IRIS

2001
The effect of cement alkalinity on zinc coating durability of galvanised steel bars in concrete
COST 521 Workshop on: "Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures"
Autore/i: Fratesi, Romeo; Moriconi, Giacomo; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53527 Collegamento a IRIS

2001
New conversion layers on zinc coatings: characterization and evaluation of corrosion resistance
III Convegno Nazionale sulla Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Roventi, Gabriella; F., Valentini
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/50857 Collegamento a IRIS

2001
Zn-Ni-Bi Alloy as Alternative to the Traditional Bath in Hot Dip Galvanizing
The Bulletin of the Bismuth Institute
Autore/i: R., Fratesi; N., Ruffini; M., Malavolta; Bellezze, Tiziano; A., Mohrenschildt
Classificazione: 5 Altro
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/48315 Collegamento a IRIS

2001
Corrosion of steel and galvanized steel reinforcing bars in concrete simulating field conditions
The European Corrosion Congress (Eurocorr 2001)
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; R., Fratesi; G. A., Plizzari; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: su CD-ROM
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/47545 Collegamento a IRIS

2001
Corrosion of steel and galvanized steel reinforcing bars in concrete simulating field conditions
Eurocorr 2001
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, R.; Plizzari, G. A.; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: AIM
Luogo di pubblicazione: MILANO
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Pubblicato su CD ROM
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/38636 Collegamento a IRIS

2001
The Effect of Cement Alkalinity on Zinc Coating Durability of Galvanised Steel Bars in Concrete
COST 521 - Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete Structures
Autore/i: Fratesi, R.; Moriconi, Giacomo; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: Department of Civil Engineering
Luogo di pubblicazione: TAMPERE
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/38416 Collegamento a IRIS

2000
Resistenza a corrosione di rivestimenti di zinco con trattamento di passivazione a base di Cr III
5° Congresso Nazionale AIMAT “AIMAT 2000”
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Roventi, Gabriella; F., Valentini; Fratesi, Romeo
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/50622 Collegamento a IRIS

2000
Morphological Characterization and Corrosion Resistance of Cr III and Cr VI-Based Conversion Layers on Zinc Coatings
Electrochemical Approach to Selected Corrosion and Corrosion Control Studies
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Fratesi, Romeo; Roventi, Gabriella
Editore: IOM Communication Ltd
Luogo di pubblicazione: LONDON
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Questa pubblicazione fa parte della serie EFC (European Federation of Corrosion) books. Il contributo è stato sottoposto a giudizio dei referee prima di essere stato inserito nel volume.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/51819 Collegamento a IRIS

2000
Evaluation of Hexavalent Chromium-Free Passivation Treatment of Galvanized Bars for Reinforced Concrete
Fifth CANMET/ACI International Conference on “Durability of Concrete”
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; L., Coppola; Fratesi, Romeo
Editore: V. M. Malhotra
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: SP 192-35
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53280 Collegamento a IRIS

2000
Influence of cement alkalinity on corrosion of galvanized steel bars in concrete
Annual Progress Report of COST 521 Workshop on “Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures
Autore/i: Fratesi, Romeo; Moriconi, Giacomo; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: P.A.M. Basheer and T.D. Sloan
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Annual Progress Reports (Ed. by P.A.M.Basheer and T.D.Sloan)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/52087 Collegamento a IRIS

1999
Action to improve the corrosion resistance of galvanized rebars in concrete: test and problems.
COST 521 Action Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete Structures
Autore/i: Fratesi, R.; Moriconi, G.; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/47761 Collegamento a IRIS

1999
Influence of cement type and surface treatment on corrosion of galvanized bars
Annual Report of COST 521 Workshop on “Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete Structures”
Autore/i: Fratesi, R.; Moriconi, G.; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: Editor André Raharinaivo, LCPC
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: pp. I2: 1-6
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/47550 Collegamento a IRIS

1999
Morphological characterization and corrosion resistance of Cr III and Cr VI based conversion layers on zinc coatings.
50th ISE Meeting
Autore/i: Fratesi, Romeo; Bellezze, Tiziano; Roventi, Gabriella
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Proceedings su CD
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/51604 Collegamento a IRIS

1999
Morfologia e resistenza a corrosione di rivestimenti di zinco con diversi trattamenti di passivazione a base Cr VI e Cr III
AIFIM. GALVANOTECNICA
Autore/i: Bellezze, Tiziano; Roventi, Gabriella; Fratesi, Romeo; G., Faranda
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53001 Collegamento a IRIS

1998
Galvanized reinforcements
COST 521 Workshop on: “Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete”
Autore/i: Fratesi, Romeo; G., Moriconi; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: Editor R.B. Polder
Luogo di pubblicazione: UTRECH
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/50848 Collegamento a IRIS

1998
Rivestimenti in lega Zn-Fe con diversi trattamenti di passivazione a base di Cr3+ e Cr6+: morfologia e resistenza a corrosione.
Atti del IV Congresso Nazionale AIMAT
Autore/i: Fratesi, Romeo; Roventi, Gabriella; Bellezze, Tiziano
Editore: U. Sanna per PTM Editrice
Luogo di pubblicazione: MOGORO (OR)
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53507 Collegamento a IRIS

1998
GROUP A: Preventive Measures Project: I-2 - Action to improve the corrosion resistance of galvanized rebars in concrete: tests and problems
COST 521 Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete Structures
Autore/i: Fratesi, R.; Moriconi, G.; Tittarelli, Francesca; Bellezze, Tiziano
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Editor Dr. Rob B. Polder
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/44821 Collegamento a IRIS

1998
Resistenza alla corrosione di barre di armatura zincate trattate con diversi sistemi di passivazione
Autore/i: Fratesi, Romeo; Bellezze, Tiziano; L., Grandi; Roventi, Gabriella
Editore: U. Sanna per PTM Editrice
Luogo di pubblicazione: MOGORO (OR)
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/53485 Collegamento a IRIS




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