Francesca LUZI

Pubblicazioni

Francesca LUZI

 

105 pubblicazioni classificate nel seguente modo:

Nr. doc. Classificazioni
92 1 Contributo su Rivista
7 2 Contributo in Volume
6 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Anno
Risorse
2023
Polymeric Patches Based on Chitosan/Green Clay Composites and Hazelnut Shell Extract as Bio-Sustainable Medication for Wounds
PHARMACEUTICS
Autore/i: Pérez Gutíerrez, Carmen Laura; Di Michele, Alessandro; Pagano, Cinzia; Puglia, Debora; Luzi, Francesca; Beccari, Tommaso; Ceccarini, Maria Rachele; Primavilla, Sara; Valiani, Andrea; Vicino, Camilla; Ricci, Maurizio; Viseras Iborra, César Antonio; Perioli, Luana
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Hazelnut shells, the main waste deriving from hazelnut processing, represent an interesting source of active molecules useful in pharmaceutics, although they have not yet been examined in depth. A hydrosoluble extract (hazelnut shell extract, HSE) was prepared by the maceration method using a hydroalcoholic solution and used as the active ingredient of patches (prepared by casting method) consisting of composites of highly deacetylated chitosan and green clay. In vitro studies showed that the formulation containing HSE is able to stimulate keratinocyte growth, which is useful for healing purposes, and to inhibit the growth of S. aureus (Log CFU/mL 0.95 vs. 8.85 of the control after 48 h); this bacterium is often responsible for wound infections and is difficult to treat by conventional antibiotics due to its antibiotic resistance. The produced patches showed suitable tensile properties that are necessary to withstand mechanical stress during both the removal from the packaging and application. The obtained results suggest that the developed patch could be a suitable product to treat wounds.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/327459 Collegamento a IRIS

2023
Crop Nitrogen Fertilization Schedule in Bread Wheat Affects the Mechanical Performances of Thermoplastic Films Obtained by Plasticization of Flours
AGRONOMY
Autore/i: Benincasa, Paolo; Dominici, Franco; Luzi, Francesca; Governatori, Catia; Gazza, Laura; Galassi, Elena; Tosti, Giacomo; Puglia, Debora
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Recent research has investigated the plasticization of wheat flour as a non-food alternative application. In this work, we analyzed the performances of thermoplastic films obtained using flours of two bread wheat cultivars (Bologna and Bora) grown in fall-spring under four nitrogen (N) fertilization treatments: (1) continuously well-N-fed (N300 = 300 kg N ha(-1), split throughout the growth cycle); (2) N-fed only very early (N60-0 = 60 kg N ha(-1), just one month after sowing); (3) N-fed only extremely late (N0-120 = 120 kg N ha(-1) at pollination); (4) unfertilized control (N0). Flours were characterized for glutenin and gliadin fractions, Chopin's alveograph parameters, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) images, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), while films were evaluated for mechanical properties (tensile strength at break, sigma(b); elongation at break, epsilon(b); Young's modulus, E) and FESEM images. Differences among treatments for absolute and relative abundances of gluten fractions and alveographic parameters were extremely marked and gave rise to differences in tensile properties of thermoplastic films. Within each cultivar, the ranking of treatments for epsilon(b) values was N0 > N60-0 > N0-120 > N300. Thus, epsilon(b) was inversely correlated with crop N availability and total gluten content of the flour. The sigma(b) was less variable among N treatments; however, in both cultivars, it was high in N0 and N300 and appreciably lower in N0-120. Overall, the best mechanical performances were obtained with flours from crops not subjected to imbalances in N nutrition (N0, N300). Our work demonstrates that bioplastic engineering needs to take into consideration the variability of biological source material like that caused by different crop N availability.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/327465 Collegamento a IRIS

2023
A way to valorize pomace from olive oil production: Lignin nanoparticles to biostimulate maize plants
ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION
Autore/i: Tolisano, Ciro; Luzi, Francesca; Regni, Luca; Proietti, Primo; Puglia, Debora; Gigliotti, Giovanni; Di Michele, Alessandro; Priolo, Dario; Del Buono, Daniele
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Agriculture will increasingly face in coming years numerous challenges, such as climate change, the growing global demand for food, its environmental impact due to green-house gas emissions, the release of pollutants into the environment, and the production of significant amounts of waste.This study focused on pomace, a waste of olive pressing, as it contains substances that can be valorized. Specifically, this study aimed to obtain lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) by treating the biomass with an ionic liquid (IL) composed of triethylamine and sulfuric acid [Et3NH][HSO4], having different concentrations of water (IL_95, IL_90 and IL_80). The LNPs obtained were characterized by Fourier Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis. The 95/5 IL/water ratio allowed for obtaining the best LNPs regarding purity, yields and morphology, which were further characterized by investigating Zeta Potential (& xi;) and Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The LNPs from IL_95 were applied to maize plants at 25, 50 and 200 mg L-1. Improvements in growth, physiological and biochemical traits were ascertained in the treated samples. LNPs generally induced photosynthetic activity, stomatal conductance and reduced cellular CO2 concentration. In addition, improvements in biomass production, root morphology and pigment content were ascertained. Finally, the study of the cellular redox state showed that the lower dosages did not cause oxidative perturbations; instead, they had ameliorative effects. In conclusion, this study opens a new way to valorize olive oil pomace by obtaining nano-scaled lignin, a sustainable and biobased material with interesting biostimulant action.& COPY; 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/327461 Collegamento a IRIS

2023
Historically Inspired Strategy to Achieve Sustainable and Effective Coloration of Bioplastics
ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING
Autore/i: Clementi, Catia; Dominici, Franco; Luzi, Francesca; Puglia, Debora; Latterini, Loredana
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The use of historical organic pigmentsis an interesting strategyto provide color nuances to biopolymers while achieving good solidoptical effects. In this work, aqueous extracts of logwood (LW) aretested as a natural source of color for the sustainable productionof an organic purple pigment (LWP) taking advantage of the historicallake approach. Different amounts of LWP (0.01-2% wt) are usedfor the effective coloration of polycaprolactone (PCL), polybutylenesuccinate (PBS), and polylactide (PLA). The full characterizationof LWP and LWP-treated biopolymer samples enables the spectral andcolor properties of the composites to be defined where the exceptionalcolor efficiency of LWP is demonstrated by the very low amount (0.5%wt) necessary to reach the saturation. The evolution of spectra andcolor coordinates under accelerated aging conditions is monitoredfor LWP-polymer samples. A 10-12% decrease of the visible absorptionband is detected after prolonged irradiation, resulting in a moderatecolor fading for PBS compared to PCL samples, while negligible changesare observed for PLA samples. The results demonstrate that LWP constitutesan efficient and sustainable source of color for the analyzed polymerswithout causing significant changes in the tensile and thermal propertiesof the polymeric matrix.Apurple pigment is prepared from a natural source followinga historical and sustainable procedure for the effective colorationof three different biopolymers.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/327462 Collegamento a IRIS

2023
The Bran and Grain Grinding Level Affect the Tensile Characteristics of Bioplastics Derived from Wholegrain Wheat Flours
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Dominici, Franco; Puglia, Debora; Luzi, Francesca; Governatori, Catia; Tosti, Giacomo; Benincasa, Paolo
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The mechanical performance of thermoplastic bulk samples obtained by plasticizing wheat flours differing in grain hardness, alveographic parameters, absence or presence of bran, and grinding level was assessed. Grains of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Altamira, Aubusson, Blasco, and Bologna) were milled with the aim of producing single-cultivar refined flour (R), or wholegrain flour with fine (F) or coarse (C) grinding. The flours were plasticized, injection molded and tested for tensile properties. The results confirmed that the presence of bran increased the strength (sigma) and reduced the elongation at break (epsilon) of thermoplastics obtained from the flours of each cultivar. The grinding level had an effect, since sigma was higher and epsilon was lower in F than in C samples. SEM analysis of samples revealed that the bran and its texture affected the exposure of starch granules to plasticizer. Composting experiments also revealed that the formulations are able to disintegrate within 21 days with a mass loss rate higher in plastics from F than C flours, while germination tests carried out with cress seeds indicated that it takes two months before the compost loses its phytotoxic effects. Overall, the refining and bran particle size of wheat flours, besides their gluten composition and baking properties, represent novel choice factors to be considered when tailoring the manufacturing of plastic materials for selected requirements and uses.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/327457 Collegamento a IRIS

2023
Novel Nanostructured Scaffolds of Poly(butylene trans-1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate)-Based Copolymers with Tailored Hydrophilicity and Stiffness: Implication for Tissue Engineering Modeling
NANOMATERIALS
Autore/i: Guidotti, Giulia; Soccio, Michelina; Argentati, Chiara; Luzi, Francesca; Aluigi, Annalisa; Torre, Luigi; Armentano, Ilaria; Emiliani, Carla; Morena, Francesco; Martino, Sabata; Lotti, Nadia
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/327460 Collegamento a IRIS

2023
Pentaerythritol and Glycerol Esters Derived from Gum Rosin as Bio-Based Additives for the Improvement of Processability and Thermal Stability of Polylactic Acid
JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Autore/i: de la Rosa-Ramírez, Harrison; Dominici, Franco; Ferri, José Miguel; Luzi, Francesca; Puglia, Debora; Torre, Luigi; López-Martínez, Juan; Samper, María Dolores
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Gum rosin esters are some of the most common gum rosin derivatives used in different applications, such as coatings, paper, varnishes, chewing gum, and food industries. In this study, gum rosin esters are used as additives for polylactic acid (PLA) to improve its processability and thermal stability. Blends of an amorphous PLA with two different gum rosin esters, pentaerythritol ester and glycerol ester, were prepared by melt extrusion process in concentrations from 1, 3, and 5 phr. Besides the comparison of thermal degradation, microstructure assessment, and melt flow index (MFI) analysis, the processability performance during testing samples production by injection molding process was evaluated. Experimental results showed that MFI values of PLA-gum rosin ester blends increased by 100%, 147%, and 164%, along with increasing content of gum rosin esters addition, in both cases. Also, both derivatives slightly improved PLA thermal stability (around 3 degrees C higher). Injection molding temperature decreased by at least 20 degrees C for PLA-gum rosin ester blends compared with neat PLA. Furthermore, the maximum tensile strength of PLA-gum rosin esters was negligibly affected in formulations with low content of gum rosin esters, and the FESEM images revealed a good dispersion and compatibility of gum rosin ester particles into PLA matrix in both concentrations.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/327456 Collegamento a IRIS

2023
Development of a sustainable and antibacterial food packaging material based in a biopolymeric multilayer system composed by polylactic acid, chitosan, cellulose nanocrystals and ethyl lauroyl arginate
FOOD PACKAGING AND SHELF LIFE
Autore/i: Patiño Vidal, C.; Luzi, Francesca; Puglia, Debora; López-Carballo, Gracia; Rojas, Adrián; Galotto, María José; López de Dicastillo, C.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Biodegradable packaging materials with antimicrobial properties are main key for developing sustainable active packages able to protect different foodstuff. Thus, the aim of this research was developing a biopolymeric and antibacterial packaging material with a trilayer structure through the combination of extrusion, electrospinning and coating techniques. This trilayer system was composed by a support extruded layer of polylactic acid (PLA), an intermediate PLA electrospun layer loaded with ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), and a third inner chitosan coating. Morphological, wettability, antibacterial and disintegrability properties of this material were evaluated. The morphological surface analysis evidenced the heterogeneity of the chitosan coating over the electrospun PLA layer, and this effect affected negatively the evaluation of wettability of this trilayer material. Antibacterial assays evidenced a fast and strong bactericidal effect against Gram(+) and (−) bacteria that maintained this activity for 15 days. Finally, the biodegradable properties of different layers favored the disintegration of developed trilayer material at 21 days under composting conditions.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/327464 Collegamento a IRIS

2023
Effect of Wet and Dry Environments in CNC/MWCNTs/Ag2O Electrically Conductive Films: Material Characterization and Molecular Dynamics Simulation
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. C
Autore/i: Luzi, Francesca; Angulo Dehesa, Ainhoa; Laudadio, Emiliano; Puglia, Debora; Lizundia, Erlantz; Stipa, Pierluigi; Armentano, Ilaria; Torre, Luigi
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Electrically-conducting biobased materials present a bright future to be used in high-technological applications including sensors, soft electronics and active packaging. Accordingly, in this work we develop and characterize ternary nanohybrid films combining cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and silver oxide (Ag2O) nanoparticles. An evaporation-induced self-assembly process is applied to obtain homogenously dispersed free-standing nanocomposite films as proven by electron microscopy observations. Thermogravimetric analyses show that while MWCNTs delay the cleavage of glycosidic linkages of cellulose, Ag2O catalyzed thermodegradation events to render materials with reduced thermal stabilities. The electrical and dielectrical properties of the nanohybrid materials are analysed under completely dry and 53% humidity atmospheres and the results are observed also in the light of the electric modulus. Water increases the conductivity of binary and ternary systems and shift the electric modulus relaxation peak. Finally, full atom molecular dynamics simulations are performed for the first time to better describe the phenomena on interfaces between nanoscale systems, underlying mechanisms for the obtained electrical AC and DC results. Computational results reveal changes in the CNC/MWCNT/Ag2O interactions depending on the water presence, more different types of interactions are found in relation to the type of nanomaterial. The combination of experimental and simulation data here shown sheds further light on the electric conducting mechanism of nanocellulose-based materials with multifunctional properties.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/324776 Collegamento a IRIS

2023
Formulation and characterization of sustainable bioadhesive films for wound treatment based on barley β-glucan extract obtained using the high power ultrasonic technique
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS
Autore/i: Di Michele, Alessandro; Gutiérrez, Carmen Laura Pérez; Pagano, Cinzia; Beccari, Tommaso; Ceccarini, Maria Rachele; Luzi, Francesca; Puglia, Debora; Tensi, Leonardo; D'Agosto, Elena; Iborra, César Antonio Viseras; Ricci, Maurizio; Perioli, Luana
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: 8-glucan is a well-known functional and bioactive food ingredient. Recently, some studies highlighted several interesting pharmacological activities, such as hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The aim of this study is to evaluate a novel application of 8-glucan, obtained from barley, for the development of formulations for skin use. Several water suspensions were obtained from barley flour of different particle sizes treated by high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. Barley flour fraction in the range of 400-500 mu m allowed to obtain a stable suspension, represented both by a water soluble and water insoluble fraction of 8-glucans, that showed excellent film forming ability. The plasticizer sorbitol as well as the bioadhesive biopolymer acacia gum were added to this suspension in order to obtain a gel suitable to prepare films by casting. The obtained films demonstrated suitable mechanical properties and ability to stimulate in vitro keratinocytes growth suggesting its possible application in dermatological field as for wound treatment. This study demonstrated the dual use of barley suspension: as excipient and as active ingredient.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/327463 Collegamento a IRIS

2023
Thermal Properties of Alternative Phase Change Materials for Solar Thermal Applications
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND TECHNOLOGY
Autore/i: Tomassetti, Sebastiano; Luzi, Francesca; Cheng, Pengyu; Forcellese, Pietro; Aquilanti, Alessia; Bellezze, Tiziano; Di Nicola, Giovanni
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Phase change materials (PCMs) with a solid-solid phase transition are receiving increasing attention as promising materials for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. Unlike the more well-known and widespread solid-liquid PCMs, they generally have negligible volume change during phase transition, no contamination, and long cyclic life. Among the most studied solid-solid PCMs, a group of organic materials known as plastic crystals and their mixtures seem to show energy storage properties suitable for solar thermal systems at low-medium temperatures (80-150 & DEG;C). In this study, to deeply analyze their suitability for these applications, the thermophysical properties and thermal stability of two promising plastic crystals, pentaerythritol (PE) and pentaglycerine (PG), and their mixture are reviewed. The phase transition properties of these two pure substances were also assessed in this study through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The experimental measurements showed good agreement with the data collected from literature. The analysis showed that various properties and characteristics of these materials should be further investigated since a limited number of studies related to their properties is available. However, if their drawbacks are adequately addressed, the studied plastic crystals seem suitable for TES applications.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/327470 Collegamento a IRIS

2023
The Optimization of Pressure-Assisted Microsyringe (PAM) 3D Printing Parameters for the Development of Sustainable Starch-Based Patches
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Pérez Gutiérrez, Carmen Laura; Cottone, Francesco; Pagano, Cinzia; Di Michele, Alessandro; Puglia, Debora; Luzi, Francesca; Dominici, Franco; Sinisi, Rossella; Ricci, Maurizio; Viseras Iborra, César Antonio; Perioli, Luana
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The aim of this work was to develop sustainable patches for wound application, using the biopolymer starch, created using a low-cost 3D printing PAM device. The composition of a starch gel was optimized for PAM extrusion: corn starch 10% w/w, beta-glucan water suspension (filler, 1% w/w), glycerol (plasticizer, 29% w/w), and water 60% w/w. The most suitable 3D printing parameters were optimized as well (nozzle size 0.8 mm, layer height 0.2 mm, infill 100%, volumetric flow rate 3.02 mm(3)/s, and print speed 15 mm/s). The suitable conditions for post-printing drying were set at 37 degrees C for 24 h. The obtained patch was homogenous but with low mechanical resistance. To solve this problem, the starch gel was extruded over an alginate support, which, after drying, becomes an integral part of the product, constituting the backing layer of the final formulation. This approach significantly improved the physicochemical and post-printing properties of the final bilayer patch, showing suitable mechanical properties such as elastic modulus (3.80 +/- 0.82 MPa), strength (0.92 +/- 0.08 MPa), and deformation at break (50 +/- 1%). The obtained results suggest the possibility of low-cost production of patches for wound treatment by additive manufacturing technology.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/327458 Collegamento a IRIS

2022
Preparation and Applications of Green Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Nanocomposites Based on Nanolignin
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Puglia, Debora; Luzi, Francesca; Torre, Luigi
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The development of bio-based materials is of great importance in the present environmental circumstances; hence, research has greatly advanced in the valorization of lignin from lignocellulosic wastes. Lignin is a natural polymer with a crosslinked structure, valuable antiradical activity, unique thermal- and UV-absorption properties, and biodegradability, which justify its use in several prospective and useful application sectors. The active functionalities of lignin promote its use as a valuable material to be adopted in the composite and nanocomposites arenas, being useful and suitable for consideration both for the synthesis of matrices and as a nanofiller. The aim of this review is to summarize, after a brief introduction on the need for alternative green solutions to petroleum-based plastics, the synthesis methods for bio-based and/or biodegradable thermoplastic and thermosetting nanocomposites, along with the application of lignin nanoparticles in all green polymeric matrices, thus generating responsiveness towards the sustainable use of this valuable product in the environment.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/327466 Collegamento a IRIS

2022
Synthesis of a Lignin/Zinc Oxide Hybrid Nanoparticles System and Its Application by Nano-Priming in Maize
NANOMATERIALS
Autore/i: Del Buono, D.; Luzi, F.; Tolisano, C.; Puglia, D.; Di Michele, A.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Nanotechnologies are attracting attention in various scientific fields for their technological and application potential, including their use as bio-activators and nanocarriers in agriculture. This work aimed to synthesize a hybrid material (ZnO@LNP) consisting of lignin nanoparticles containing zinc oxide (4 wt %). The synthesized ZnO hybrid material showed catalytic effect toward thermal degradation, as evidenced by the TGA investigation, while both spectroscopic and contact angle measurements confirmed a modification of surface hydrophilicity for the lignin nanoparticles due to the presence of hydrophobic zinc oxide. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the ZnO@LNP and the zinc release of this material were evaluated. At the application level, this study proposes for the first time the use of such a hybrid system to prime maize seeds by exploiting the release characteristics of this material. Concerning the dosage applied, ZnO@LNP promoted inductive effects on the early stages of seed development and plant growth and biomass development of young seedlings. In particular, the ZnO@LNP stimulated, in the primed seeds, a higher content of chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins, total phenols, and a better antioxidant activity, as supported by the lower levels of lipid peroxidation found when compared to the control samples.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/295816 Collegamento a IRIS

2022
Wound Dressing: Combination of Acacia Gum/PVP/Cyclic Dextrin in Bioadhesive Patches Loaded with Grape Seed Extract
PHARMACEUTICS
Autore/i: Pagano, Cinzia; Luzi, Francesca; Ricci, Maurizio; Michele, Alessandro Di; Puglia, Debora; Ceccarini, Maria Rachele; Beccari, Tommaso; Blasi, Francesca; Cossignani, Lina; Schoubben, Aurélie; Primavilla, Sara; Iborra, César Antonio Viseras; Perioli, Luana
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The success of wound treatment is conditioned by the combination of both suitable active ingredients and formulation. Grape seed extract (GSE), a waste by-product obtained by grape processing, is a natural source rich in many phenolic compounds responsible for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities and for this reason useful to be used in a wound care product. Bioadhesive polymeric patches have been realized by combining acacia gum (AG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Prototypes were prepared by considering different AG/PVP ratios and the most suitable in terms of mechanical and bioadhesion properties resulted in the 9.5/1.0 ratio. This patch was loaded with GSE combined with cyclic dextrin (CD) to obtain the molecular dispersion of the active ingredient in the dried formulation. The loaded patch resulted mechanically resistant and able to release GSE by a sustained mechanism reaching concentrations able to stimulate keratinocytes' growth, to exert both antibacterial and antioxidant activities.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/308103 Collegamento a IRIS

2022
Lemna minor aqueous extract as a natural ingredient incorporated in poly (vinyl alcohol)-based films for active food packaging systems
FOOD PACKAGING AND SHELF LIFE
Autore/i: Luzi, F.; Del Buono, D.; Orfei, B.; Moretti, C.; Bounaurio, R.; Torre, L.; Puglia, D.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: An aqueous extract of Lemna minor (LE – 0.5%, dry weight/volume), a wild spontaneous aquatic species, was used as an active agent in poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films at the concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 20 wt%, realized through the solvent casting process. This species was selected after determining a high total phenol content (TPC – 6.7 mg g−1 DW) and antioxidant of its aqueous extract. Transparency, color and morphological studies were considered to define the effect of the LE component on the optical properties of the matrix obtained. In addition, antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial studies were performed to shed light on the LE effect on the active functional properties of the realized films for multifunctional packaging. The optical characterization of the obtained films revealed that the extract of Lemna minor in PVA films induced some alterations, although its presence determined positive radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity. These results demonstrate the possibility of using these polymeric systems in the food packaging sector.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/295817 Collegamento a IRIS

2022
Nanoscale Characterization of Graphene Oxide-Based Epoxy Nanocomposite Using Inverted Scanning Microwave Microscopy
SENSORS
Autore/i: Joseph, C. H.; Luzi, Francesca; Azman, S. N. Afifa; Forcellese, Pietro; Pavoni, Eleonora; Fabi, Gianluca; Mencarelli, Davide; Gentili, Serena; Pierantoni, Luca; Morini, Antonio; Simoncini, Michela; Bellezze, Tiziano; Corinaldesi, Valeria; Farina, Marco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) is a novel metrological tool that advances the quantitative, nanometric, high-frequency, electrical characterization of a broad range of materials of technological importance. In this work, we report an inverted near-field scanning microwave microscopy (iSMM) investigation of a graphene oxide-based epoxy nanocomposite material at a nanoscopic level. The high-resolution spatial mapping of local conductance provides a quantitative analysis of the sample's electrical properties. In particular, the electrical conductivity in the order of ∼10-1 S/m as well as the mapping of the dielectric constant with a value of ∼4.7 ± 0.2 are reported and validated by the full-wave electromagnetic modeling of the tip-sample interaction.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/309543 Collegamento a IRIS

2022
Natural Active Ingredients for Poly (Lactic Acid)-Based Materials: State of the Art and Perspectives
ANTIOXIDANTS
Autore/i: Lombardi, Andrea; Fochetti, Andrea; Vignolini, Pamela; Campo, Margherita; Durazzo, Alessandra; Lucarini, Massimo; Puglia, Debora; Luzi, Francesca; Papalini, Marco; Renzi, Monia; Cavallo, Andrea; Bernini, Roberta
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This review describes the state of the art in the field of poly (lactic acid) (PLA)-based materials activated by natural compounds and extracts (active ingredients, AIs) from plant sources for food and biomedical applications. With a multidisciplinary approach, after a description of the synthesis and properties of PLA, special attention was paid to the chemical properties and unconventional extraction technologies of AIs used for PLA activation. Innovative techniques for the incorporation of AIs into PLA; characterization and the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the novel materials were discussed. In view of future perspectives, this study has evidenced that some aspects need to be further investigated from joint research between academia and industry, according to the green chemistry principles and circular economy strategy.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/307822 Collegamento a IRIS

2022
Organic waste valorisation towards circular and sustainable biocomposites
GREEN CHEMISTRY
Autore/i: Lizundia, E; Luzi, F; Puglia, D
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The adoption of circular production and consumption patterns that counteract the current issues related to the depletion of natural resources, global warming, and environmental pollution is one of the most pressing global challenges that faces our society. Considering the potential of organic waste and residue streams to be transformed into valuable products, much effort is now being directed to foster circular bio-economy strategies. The valorisation of organic waste reduces the pressure on non-renewable resources and avoids the generation of waste. Organic waste valorisation has attracted much attention from fundamental and applied fields, given its wide availability and versatility. This review aims to provide an insight into valorisation of organic waste of aquatic, agricultural, forestry and animal origin to polymeric matrices, bionanoparticles and their combination. An introductory analysis dealing with state-of-the-art circular bioeconomy, recycling and upcycling is provided. Then, a literature review in the context of biopolymers and derived nanoparticles is provided, emphasizing toxicity and biodegradability aspects. The environmental impacts of valorisation processes are analyzed according to life cycle assessment. The establishment of organic waste conversion routes will lead to innovative bio-based industries, opening new market opportunities for bio-based products and achieving efficient resource utilisation. However, the social, economic and political barriers still encountered must be overcome.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/307823 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Evaluation of the Factors Affecting the Disintegration under a Composting Process of Poly(lactic acid)/Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PLA/PHB) Blends
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Iglesias-Montes, Magdalena L; Soccio, Michelina; Luzi, Francesca; Puglia, Debora; Gazzano, Massimo; Lotti, Nadia; Manfredi, Liliana B; Cyras, Viviana P
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The overall migration behavior and the disintegration under composting conditions of films based on plasticized poly(lactic acid)/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PLA-PHB) blends were studied, with the main aim of determining the feasibility of their application as biodegradable food packaging materials. The role of composition in the disintegration process was evaluated by monitoring the changes in physical and thermal properties that originated during the degradation process. PLA and PHB were blended in two weight ratios with 15 wt% of tributyrin, using a Haake mixer and then compression molded into similar to 150 mu m films. We found that the migration level of all of the studied blends was below check intended meaning retained in non-polar simulants, while only plasticized blends could withstand the contact with polar solvents. The disintegration of all of the materials in compost at 58 degrees C was completed within 42 days; the plasticized PHB underwent the fastest degradation, taking only 14 days. The presence of the TB plasticizer speeded up the degradation process. Different degradation mechanisms were identified for PLA and PHB. To evaluate the annealing effect separately from bacteria degradation, the influence of temperature on materials in the absence of a compost environment was also studied. With the increasing time of degradation in compost, both melting temperature and maximum degradation temperature progressively decreased, while the crystallinity degree increased, indicating that the samples were definitely degrading and that the amorphous regions were preferentially eroded by bacteria.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/308122 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Nanolignin: Extraction methodologies and their impact assessment
Micro and Nanolignin in Aqueous Dispersions and Polymers: Interactions, Properties, and Applications
Autore/i: Puglia, D.; Luzi, F.; Torre, L.
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/308121 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Lignin nanoparticles: A promising tool to improve maize physiological, biochemical, and chemical traits
NANOMATERIALS
Autore/i: Del buono, Daniele; Luzi, Francesca; Puglia, Debora
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Lignin, and its derivatives, are the subject of current research for the exciting properties shown by this biomass. Particularly attractive are lignin nanoparticles for their eco- and biocompatibility compared to other nanomaterials. In this context, the effect of nanostructured lignin microparticles (LNP), obtained from alkaline lignin by acid treatment, on maize plants was investigated. To this end, maize seeds were primed with LNP at five concentrations: 80 mg L−1 (T80), 312 mg L−1 (T312), 1250 mg L−1 (T1250), 5000 mg L−1 (T5000) and 20,000 mg L−1 (T20000). Concerning the dose applied, LNP prompted positive effects on the first stages of maize development (germination and radicle length). Furthermore, the study of plant growth, biochemical and chemical parameters on the developed plants indicated that concerning the dose applied. LNP stimulated beneficial effects on the seedlings (fresh weight and length of shoots and roots). Besides, specific treatments increased the content of chlorophyll (a and b), carotenoid, and anthocyanin. Finally, the soluble protein content showed a positive trend in response to specific dosages. These effects are significant, given the essential biological function performed by these biomolecules. In conclusion, this research indicates as the nanostructured lignin microparticles can be used, at appropriate dosages, to induce positive biological responses in maize. This beneficial action deserves attention as it candidates LNP for biostimulating a crop through seed priming.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296527 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Development and characterization of xanthan gum and alginate based bioadhesive film for pycnogenol topical use in wound treatment
PHARMACEUTICS
Autore/i: Pagano, C.; Puglia, D.; Luzi, F.; Di Michele, A.; Scuota, S.; Primavilla, S.; Ceccarini, M. R.; Beccari, T.; Iborra, C. A. V.; Ramella, D.; Ricci, M.; Perioli, L.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Pycnogenol (PYC) is a concentrate of phenolic compounds derived from French maritime pine; its biological activity as antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory and antibacterial suggests its use in the treatment of open wounds. A bioadhesive film, loaded with PYC, was prepared by casting, starting with a combination of two biopolymer acqueous solutions: xanthan gum (1% wt/wt) and sodium alginate (1.5% wt/wt), in a 2.5/7.5 (wt/wt) ratio. In both solutions, glycerol (10% wt/wt) was added as plasticizing agent. The film resulted in an adhesive capable to absorb a simulated wound fluid (~65% wt/wt within 1 h), therefore suitable for exuding wounds. The mechanical characterization showed that the film is deformable (elastic modulus E = 3.070 ± 0.044 MPa), suggesting adaptability to any type of surface and resistance to mechanical solicitations. PYC is released within 24 h by a sustained mechanism, achieving a maximum concentration of ~ 0.2 mg/mL, that is safe for keratinocytes, as shown by cytotoxicity studies. A concentration of 0.015 mg/mL is reached in the first 5 min after application, at which point PYC stimulates keratinocyte growth. These preliminary results suggest the use of PYC in formulations designed for topical use.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296489 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Anthocyanin hybrid nanopigments from pomegranate waste: Colour, thermomechanical stability and environmental impact of polyester-based bionanocomposites
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Mico-Vicent, B.; Ramos, M.; Viqueira, V.; Luzi, F.; Dominici, F.; Terenzi, A.; Maron, E.; Hamzaoui, M.; Kohnen, S.; Torre, L.; Jimenez, A.; Puglia, D.; Garrigos, M. C.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In the present work, anthocyanin (ACN) hybrid nanopigments were synthetized by using a natural pomegranate dye (PD) and calcined hydrotalcite (HT) and montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclays. A wide colour gamut was obtained with MMT-based nanopigments ranging from reddish to bluish hues caused by structural transformations of ACNs at different pH values. However, a buffer effect was observed with HT obtaining samples a similar final colour regardless of the synthesis conditions. Nanopigments added with a biomordant extracted from pomegranate peels showed a different colour compared to the incorporation of a commercial mordant due to the intrinsic colouring properties of the pomegranate bioadditive. The developed nanopigments were incorporated at 7 wt% loading to produce novel polyester-based bionanocomposites which were characterized in terms of thermal, mechanical and colour properties. The encapsulation of PD into the nanoclays improved its thermal stability, in particular for MMT-based nanopigments. The pH changes observed during the nanofillers synthesis affected the final colour of the MMT-based nanocomposites, inducing a general increase in ∆E* and a decrease in gloss values. Slight improvements were obtained in terms of elastic modulus for MMT-based polymer samples confirming the applicability of the developed bionanocomposites as colouring and reinforcement materials. A very similar environmental profile was obtained for MMT and HT-based nanofillers showing MMT-based nanopigments a slightly better general behaviour. The results of the LCA study evidenced the suitability of the processes used in this work to the circular bioeconomy approach through sustainable food waste management and the production of bioplastics using waste substrates.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296827 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Hydroxytyrosol and Oleuropein-Enriched Extracts Obtained from Olive Oil Wastes and By-Products as Active Antioxidant Ingredients for Poly (Vinyl Alcohol)-Based Films
MOLECULES
Autore/i: Luzi, Francesca; Pannucci, Elisa; Clemente, Mariangela; Grande, Edoardo; Urciuoli, Silvia; Romani, Annalisa; Torre, Luigi; Puglia, Debora; Bernini, Roberta; Santi, Luca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Oxidative stability of food is one of the most important parameters affecting integrity and consequently nutritional properties of dietary constituents. Antioxidants are widely used to avoid deterioration during transformation, packaging, and storage of food. In this paper, novel poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based films were prepared by solvent casting method adding an hydroxytyrosol-enriched extract (HTyrE) or an oleuropein-enriched extract (OleE) in different percentages (5, 10 and 20% w/w) and a combination of both at 5% w/w. Both extracts were obtained from olive oil wastes and by-products using a sustainable process based on membrane technologies. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of each sample carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear resonance magnetic spectroscopy (NMR) proved that the main components were hydroxytyrosol (HTyr) and oleuropein (Ole), respectively, two well-known antioxidant bioactive compounds found in Olea europaea L. All novel formulations were characterized investigating their morphological, optical and antioxidant properties. The promising performances suggest a potential use in active food packaging to preserve oxidative-sensitive food products. Moreover, this research represents a valuable example of reuse and valorization of agro-industrial wastes and by-products according to the circular economy model.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/308123 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Migration and Degradation in Composting Environment of Active Polylactic Acid Bilayer Nanocomposites Films: Combined Role of Umbelliferone, Lignin and Cellulose Nanostructures
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Iglesias-Montes, Magdalena L; Luzi, Francesca; Dominici, Franco; Torre, Luigi; Manfredi, Liliana B; Cyras, Viviana P; Puglia, Debora
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This study was dedicated to the functional characterization of innovative poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based bilayer films containing lignocellulosic nanostructures (cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) or lignin nanoparticles (LNPs)) and umbelliferone (UMB) as active ingredients (AIs), prepared to be used as active food packaging. Materials proved to have active properties associated with the antioxidant action of UMB and LNPs, as the combination of both ingredients in the bilayer formulations produced a positive synergic effect inducing the highest antioxidant capacity. The results of overall migration for the PLA bilayer systems combining CNCs or LNPs and UMB revealed that none of these samples exceeded the overall migration limit required by the current normative for food packaging materials in both non-polar and polar simulants. Finally, all the hydrophobic monolayer and bilayer films were completely disintegrated in composting conditions in less than 18 days of incubation, providing a good insight on the potential use of these materials for application as active and compostable food packaging.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/308124 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Polymeric composites and nanocomposites containing lignin: Structure and applications
Micro and Nanolignin in Aqueous Dispersions and Polymers: Interactions, Properties, and Applications
Autore/i: Luzi, F.; Torre, L.; Puglia, D.
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/308104 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Covalent immobilization of proteases on polylactic acid for proteins hydrolysis and waste biomass protein content valorization
CATALYSTS
Autore/i: Calzoni, E.; Cesaretti, A.; Tacchi, S.; Caponi, S.; Pellegrino, R. M.; Luzi, F.; Cottone, F.; Fioretto, D.; Emiliani, C.; Di Michele, A.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The recovery of the protein component and its transformation into protein hydrolysates, generally carried out chemically, gives great added value to waste biomasses. The production of protein hydrolysates through enzymatic catalysis would guarantee to lower the environmental impact of the process and raise product quality, due to the reproducible formation of low molecular weight peptides, with interesting and often unexplored biological activities. The immobilization of the enzymes represents a good choice in terms of stability, recyclability and reduction of costs. In this context, we covalently linked proteases from Aspergillus oryzae to polylactic acid an eco-friendly biopolymer. The hydrolytic efficiency of immobilized enzymes was assessed testing their stability to temperature and over time, and checking the hydrolysis of model biomasses (casein and bovine serum albumin). Soybean waste extracts were also used as proof of principle.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296520 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Color fixation strategies on sustainable poly-butylene succinate using biobased itaconic acid
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Quiles, L. G.; Vidal, J.; Luzi, F.; Dominici, F.; Cuello, A. F.; Castell, P.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Biopo-lybutylene succinate (bioPBS) is gaining attention in the biodegradable polymer market due to its promising properties, such as high biodegradability and processing versatility, representing a potential sustainable replacement for fossil-based commodities. However, there is still a need to enhance its properties for certain applications, with aesthetical and mechanical properties being a challenge. The aim of the present work is to improve these properties by adding selected additives that will confer bioPBS with comparable properties to that of current counterparts such as polypropylene (PP) for specific applications in the automotive and household appliances sectors. A total of thirteen materials have been studied and compared, being twelve biocomposites containing combinations of three different additives: a commercial red colorant, itaconic acid (IA) to enhance color fixation and zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles to maintain at least native PBS mechanical properties. The results show that the combination of IA and the coloring agent tends to slightly yellowish the blend due to the absorbance spectra of IA and also to modify the gloss due to the formation of IA nanocrystals that affects light scattering. In addition, for low amounts of IA (4 wt %), Young’s Modulus seems to be kept while elongation at break is even raised. Unexpectedly, a strong aging affect was found after four weeks. IA increases the hydrophilic behavior of the samples and thus seems to accelerate the hydrolization of the matrix, which is accompanied by an accused disaggregation of phases and an overall softening and rigidization effect. The addition of low amounts of ZrO2 (2 wt %) seems to provide the desired effect for hardening the surface while almost not affecting the other properties; however, higher amounts tends to form aggregates saturating the compounds. As a conclusion, IA might be a good candidate for color fixing in biobased polymers.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296829 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Effect of chlorophyll hybrid nanopigments from broccoli waste on thermomechanical and colour behaviour of polyester-based bionanocomposites
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Mico-Vicent, B.; Ramos, M.; Luzi, F.; Dominici, F.; Viqueira, V.; Torre, L.; Jimenez, A.; Puglia, D.; Garrigos, M. C.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Natural dyes obtained from agro-food waste can be considered promising substitutes of synthetic dyes to be used in several applications. With this aim, in the present work, we studied the use of chlorophyll dye (CD) extracted from broccoli waste to obtain hybrid nanopigments based on calcined hydrotalcite (HT) and montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclays. The synthesized chlorophyll hybrid nanopigments (CDNPs), optimized by using statistical designed experiments, were melt-extruded with a polyester-based matrix (INZEA) at 7 wt% loading. Mechanical, thermal, structural, morphological and colour properties of the obtained bionanocomposites were evaluated. The obtained results evidenced that the maximum CD adsorption into HT was obtained when adding 5 wt% of surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) without using any biomordant and coupling agent, while the optimal conditions for MMT were achieved without adding any of the studied modifiers. In both cases, an improvement in CD thermal stability was observed by its incorporation in the nanoclays, able to protect chlorophyll degradation. The addition of MMT to INZEA resulted in large ∆E* values compared to HT incorporation, showing bionanocomposite green/yellow tones as a consequence of the CDNPs addition. The results obtained by XRD and TEM revealed a partially intercalated/exfoliated structure for INZEA-based bionanocomposites, due to the presence of an inorganic filler in the formulation of the commercial product, which was also confirmed by TGA analysis. CDNPs showed a reinforcement effect due to the presence of the hybrid nanopigments and up to 26% improvement in Young’s modulus compared to neat INZEA. Finally, the incorporation of CDNPs induced a decrease in thermal stability as well as limited effect in the melting/crystallization behaviour of the INZEA matrix. The obtained results showed the potential use of green natural dyes from broccoli wastes, adsorbed into nanoclays, for the development of naturally coloured bionanocomposites.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296487 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Straw fibres from barley hybrid lines and their reinforcement effect in polypropylene based composites
INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS
Autore/i: Puglia, D.; Luzi, F.; Lilli, M.; Sbardella, F.; Pauselli, M.; Torre, L.; Benincasa, P.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In order to investigate the role of plant hybridization in barley on the overall thermomechanical performance of polymeric composites containing their by-products, straws from one self-pollinated (Quench) and two F1 hybrid lines of barley (Tatoo and Zoo) were collected and characterized from the chemical (FTIR), structural (XRD), thermal (TGA) and mechanical (tensile) point of view, and used as reinforcements in a commodity plastic, such as polypropylene. XRD characterization confirmed a crystallinity index (CrI) equal to 57.59 % for the self-pollinated Quench straw, while the two hybrid lines showed slightly higher values (CrI of 61.55 % and 62.29 % for Tatoo and Zoo, respectively). TGA characterization showed an improved thermal stability for the cellulose fractions of the hybrid lines (Zoo and Tatoo) in comparison with the Quench straw, while FESEM investigation of the longitudinal external surfaces and cross sections showed a not uniform dense structure with variable thickness for the three lines, which contributed to a variable mechanical performance of the cereal straws. We found that hybrid lines possess slightly higher Young's modulus and tensile strength in comparison with self-pollinated Quench. Different mechanical response of the stem led to a higher stiffness for PP composites reinforced with hybrid lines, while tensile strength was not significantly affected by the barley straw line. The incorporation of 5 wt% of MAPP coupling agent improved both tensile strength and modulus of the composites, due to an increased interfacial adhesion between the barley straw fibres and the PP matrix.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296504 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Thermomechanical, antioxidant and moisture behaviour of PVA films in presence of citric acid esterified cellulose nanocrystals
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES
Autore/i: Yang, W.; He, X.; Luzi, F.; Dong, W.; Zheng, T.; Kenny, J. M.; Puglia, D.; Ma, P.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In the present work, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) active packaging films containing different amounts (1, 3, 5, 10 and 15% wt.) of unmodified cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and citric acid modified cellulose nanocrystals (mCNC) were prepared by solvent casting and their effect on thermal, mechanical and wettability behaviour of the resulted films was investigated. Results showed that both CNC and mCNC improved the thermal stability of the neat PVA matrix, but different mechanical properties and water wettability were found. Thermal stability of the materials was enhanced, by measuring shift of onset and peak temperatures that moved, respectively, from 251.5 to 298.1 °C and from 283.4 to 374.2 °C, in the case of PVA/15CNC and PVA/15mCNC films. The presence of mCNC contribute to increase the crystallinity up to 52% for PVA/10mCNC film, while it was limited to 39% for PVA/10CNC. Interestingly, PVA/mCNC composite films showed a clear UV shielding effect, while no UV resistance behaviour was detected for PVA/CNC films. Overall migration tests revealed that the migration value was well below the legislative limits (60 mg kg−1) for food contact materials, PVA/mCNC composite films have higher radical scavenging activity than PVA/CNC films and moisture content of PVA films containing mCNC was reduced at high RH. In conclusion, PVA/mCNC films could be considered as high-performance active food packaging materials.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296508 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Polymeric Bioadhesive Patch Based on Ketoprofen-Hydrotalcite Hybrid for Local Treatments
PHARMACEUTICS
Autore/i: Pagano, Cinzia; Latterini, Loredana; Di Michele, Alessandro; Luzi, Francesca; Puglia, Debora; Ricci, Maurizio; Antonio Viseras Iborra, César; Perioli, Luana
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296493 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Improving the flexibility and compostability of starch/poly(butylene cyclohexanedicarboxylate)-based blends
CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS
Autore/i: Dominici, F.; Gigli, M.; Armentano, I.; Genovese, L.; Luzi, F.; Torre, L.; Munari, A.; Lotti, N.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Fully biobased blends of thermoplastic starch and a poly(butylene cyclohexanedicarboxylate)-based random copolyester containing 25 % of adipic acid co-units (PBCEA) are prepared by melt blending and direct extrusion film casting. The obtained films are characterized from the physicochemical and mechanical point of view and their fragmentation under composting conditions is evaluated. The results demonstrate that the introduction of adipic acid co-units in the PBCE macromolecular chains permits to decrease the blending temperature, thus avoiding unwanted starch degradation reactions. Moreover, the presence of small amounts of citric acid as compatibilizer further improves the interfacial adhesion between the two components and promotes the formation of micro-porosities within the films. The synergistic combination of these factors leads to the development of materials showing an elastomeric behavior, i.e. no evident yield and elongation at break higher than 450 %, good moisture resistance and fast fragmentation in compost.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296533 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Unpatterned bioactive poly(Butylene 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate)-based film fast induced neuronal-like differentiation of human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
Autore/i: Morena, F.; Argentati, C.; Soccio, M.; Bicchi, I.; Luzi, F.; Torre, L.; Munari, A.; Emiliani, C.; Gigli, M.; Lotti, N.; Armentano, I.; Martino, S.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Herein, we present poly(butylene 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate) (PBCE) films characterized by an unpatterned microstructure and a specific hydrophobicity, capable of boosting a drastic cytoskeleton architecture remodeling, culminating with the neuronal-like differentiation of human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). We have used two different filming procedures to prepare the films, solvent casting (PBCE) and compression-moulding (PBCE*). PBCE film had a rough and porous surface with spherulite-like aggregations (Ø = 10–20 µm) and was characterized by a water contact angle = 100◦. PBCE* showed a smooth and continuous surface without voids and visible spherulite-like aggregations and was more hydrophobic (WCA = 110◦). Both surface characteristics were modulated through the copolymerization of different amounts of ether-oxygen-containing co-units into PBCE chemical structure. We showed that only the surface characteristics of PBCE-solvent-casted films steered hBM-MSCs toward a neuronal-like differentiation. hBM-MSCs lost their canonical mesenchymal morphology, acquired a neuronal polarized shape with a long cell protrusion (≥150 µm), expressed neuron-specific class III β-tubulin and microtubule-associated protein 2 neuronal markers, while nestin, a marker of uncommitted stem cells, was drastically silenced. These events were observed as early as 2-days after cell seeding. Of note, the phenomenon was totally absent on PBCE* film, as hBM-MSCs maintained the mesenchymal shape and behavior and did not express neuronal/glial markers.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296519 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Thermomechanical and Morphological Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/Anhydrous Calcium Terephthalate Nanocomposites
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Dominici, Franco; Sarasini, Fabrizio; Luzi, Francesca; Torre, Luigi; Puglia, Debora
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Calcium terephthalate anhydrous salts (CATAS), synthetized by reaction of terephthalic acid with metal (Ca) oxide were incorporated at different weight contents (0-30 wt. %) in recycled Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (rPET) by melt processing. Their structure, morphology, thermal and mechanical properties (tensile and flexural behavior) were investigated. Results of tensile strength of the different formulations showed that when the CATAS content increased from 0.1 to 0.4 wt. %, tangible changes were observed (variation of tensile strength from 65.5 to 69.4 MPa, increasing value for E from 2887 up to 3131 MPa, respectively for neat rPET and rPET_0.4CATAS). A threshold weight amount (0.4 wt. %) of CATAS was also found, by formation at low loading, of a rigid amorphous fraction at the rPET/CATAS interface, due to the aromatic interactions (π-π conjugation) between the matrix and the filler. Above the threshold, a restriction of rPET/CATAS molecular chains mobility was detected, due to the formation of hybrid mechanical percolation networks. Additionally, enhanced thermal stability of CATAS filled rPET was registered at high content (Tmax shift from 426 to 441 °C, respectively, for rPET and rPET_30CATAS), essentially due to chemical compatibility between terephthalate salts and polymer molecules, rich in stable aromatic rings. The singularity of a cold crystallization event, identified at the same loading level, confirmed the presence of an equilibrium state between nucleation and blocking effect of amorphous phase, basically related to the characteristic common terephthalate structure of synthetized Ca-Metal Organic Framework and the rPET matrix.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296503 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Exploring curing potential of epoxy nanocomposites containing nitrate anion intercalated Mg–Al–LDH with Cure Index
PROGRESS IN ORGANIC COATINGS
Autore/i: Karami, Zohre; Jouyandeh, Maryam; Ghiyasi, Samira; Ali, Jagar A.; Reza Ganjalia, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mustafa; Maadani, Mona; Rallini, Marco; Luzi, Francesca; Torre, Luigi; Puglia, Debora; Reza Saeb, Mohammad
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This paper focuses to provide information about the structure-property relationship in epoxy/LDH system by studying the curing characteristic of nanocomposite containing 0.1 wt.% of Mg–Al–NO3–LDH. For this purpose, Mg–Al–LDH intercalated with nitrate anion was synthesized using hydrothermal method. The formation of lamellar structure of LDH was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG) analyses. Then, the role of synthesized LDH in curing reaction of epoxy was qualitatively evaluated by nonisothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) performed at different heating rates via Cure Index (CI). From this point of view, the cure state of epoxy nanocomposite at heating rate of 2 °C/min was Poor, due to the vitrification of epoxy system before complete cure taking place in the system. By increasing the heating rates up to 5, 7 and then 10 °C/min, the mobility reactants was increased in the system, so that curing reaction was facilitated. Besides, nitrate anion taking part in epoxide ring opening reaction caused progress in crosslinking network formation, as evidenced by Excellent cure state.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296513 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Effect of almond shell waste on physicochemical properties of polyester-based biocomposites
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Ramos, M.; Dominici, F.; Luzi, F.; Jimenez, A.; Garrigos, M. C.; Torre, L.; Puglia, D.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Polyester-based biocomposites containing INZEA F2® biopolymer and almond shell powder (ASP) at 10 and 25 wt % contents with and without two different compatibilizers, maleinized linseed oil and Joncryl ADR 4400®, were prepared by melt blending in an extruder, followed by injection molding. The effect of fine (125-250 m) and coarse (500-1000 m) milling sizes of ASP was also evaluated. An improvement in elastic modulus was observed with the addition of< both fine and coarse ASP at 25 wt %. The addition of maleinized linseed oil and Joncryl ADR 4400 produced some compatibilizing effect at low filler contents while biocomposites with a higher amount of ASP still presented some gaps at the interface by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Some decrease in thermal stability was shown which was related to the relatively low thermal stability and disintegration of the lignocellulosic filler. The added modifiers provided some enhanced thermal resistance to the final biocomposites. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis suggested the presence of two different polyesters in the polymer matrix, with one of them showing full disintegration after 28 and 90 days for biocomposites containing 25 and 10 wt %, respectively, under composting conditions. The developed biocomposites have been shown to be potential polyester-based matrices for use as compostable materials at high filler contents.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296506 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Novel nanocomposite PLA films with lignin/zinc oxide hybrids: Design, characterization, interaction with mesenchymal stem cells
NANOMATERIALS
Autore/i: Luzi, F.; Tortorella, I.; Di Michele, A.; Dominici, F.; Argentati, C.; Morena, F.; Torre, L.; Puglia, D.; Martino, S.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Herein we present the production of novel nanocomposite films consisting of polylactic acid (PLA) polymer and the inclusion of nanoparticles of lignin (LNP), ZnO and hybrid ZnO@LNP (ZnO, 3.5% wt, ICP), characterized by similar regular shapes and different diameter distribution (30–70 nm and 100–150 nm, respectively). The obtained set of binary, ternary and quaternary systems were similar in surface wettability and morphology but different in the tensile performance: while the presence of LNP and ZnO in PLA caused a reduction of elastic modulus, stress and deformation at break, the inclusion of ZnO@LNP increased the stiffness and tensile strength (σb = 65.9 MPa and EYoung = 3030 MPa) with respect to neat PLA (σb = 37.4 MPa and EYoung = 2280 MPa). Neat and nanocomposite PLA-derived films were suitable for adult human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells and adipose stem cell cultures, as showed by their viability and behavior comparable to control conditions. Both stem cell types adhered to the films’ surface by vinculin focal adhesion spots and responded to the films’ mechanical properties by orchestrating the F-actin–filamin A interaction. Collectively, our results support the biomedical application of neat-and nanocomposite-PLA films and, based on the absence of toxicity in seeded stem cells, provide a proof of principle of their safety for food packaging purposes.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296499 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
PBS-Based Green Copolymer as an Efficient Compatibilizer in Thermoplastic Inedible Wheat Flour/Poly(butylene succinate) Blends
BIOMACROMOLECULES
Autore/i: Soccio, Michelina; Dominici, Franco; Quattrosoldi, Silvia; Luzi, Francesca; Munari, Andrea; Torre, Luigi; Lotti, Nadia; Puglia, Debora
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Considering the current context of research aiming at proposing new bioplastics with low costs and properties similar to fossil-based commodities currently on the market, in the present work, a hybrid blend containing a prevalent amount of cheap inedible cereal flour (70 wt %) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) (30 wt %) has been prepared by a simple, eco-friendly, and low-cost processing methodology. In order to improve the interfacial tension and enhance the adhesion between the different phases at the solid state, with consequent improvement in microstructure uniformity and in material mechanical and adhesive performance, the PBS fraction in the blend was replaced with variable amounts (0-25 wt %) of PBS-based green copolymer, which exerted the function of a compatibilizer. The copolymer is characterized by an ad hoc chemical structure, containing six-carbon aliphatic rings, also present in the flour starch structure. The two synthetic polyesters obtained through two-stage melt polycondensation have been deeply characterized from the molecular, thermal, and mechanical points of view. Copolymerization deeply impacts the polymer final properties, the crystallizing ability, and stiffness of the PBS homopolymer being reduced. Also, the prepared ternary blends were deeply investigated in terms of microstructure, thermal, and mechanical properties. Lastly, both pure blend components and ternary blends were subjected to disintegration experiments under composting conditions. The results obtained proved how effective was the compatibilizer action of the copolymer, as evidenced by the investigation conducted on morphology and mechanical properties. Specifically, the mixtures with 15 and 20 wt % Co appeared to be characterized by the best mechanical performance, showing a progressive increase of deformation while preserving good values of elastic modulus and stress. The disintegration rate in compost was found to be higher for the lower amount of copolymer in the ternary blend. However, after 90 days of incubation, the blend richest in copolymer content lost 62% of weight.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296518 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Antioxidant Packaging Films Based on Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (EVOH) and Caffeic Acid
MOLECULES
Autore/i: Luzi, F.; Torre, L.; Puglia, D.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The main objective of this research activity was to design and realize active films with tunable food functional properties. In detail, caffeic acid (CA), a polyphenol with high antioxidant effect, was used as active ingredient in poly (vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (EVOH) films at 5 wt.% and 15 wt.% and successfully realized by means of the solvent casting process. Optical, morphological, thermal and mechanical studies were considered to define the effect of the presence of the CA component on the structural properties of the matrix. In addition, moisture content and antioxidant activity were evaluated, to have clear information on the CA effect in terms of functional characteristics of realized food packaging systems. Results from tensile tests showed increased values for strength and deformation at break in EVOH_CA based films. Results from colorimetric and transparency analysis underlined that the presence of caffeic acid in EVOH copolymer induces some alterations, whereas the addition of the active ingredient determined a positive radical scavenging activity of the formulations, confirming the possibility of practically using these polymeric systems in the food packaging sector.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296536 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Improved Toughness in Lignin/Natural Fiber Composites Plasticized with Epoxidized and Maleinized Linseed Oils
MATERIALS
Autore/i: Dominici, Franco; Dolores Samper, María; Carbonell-Verdu, Alfredo; Luzi, Francesca; López-Martínez, Juan; Torre, Luigi; Puglia, Debora
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The use of maleinized (MLO) and epoxidized (ELO) linseed oils as potential biobased plasticizers for lignin/natural fiber composites formulations with improved toughness was evaluated. Arboform®, a lignin/natural fiber commercial composite, was used as a reference matrix for the formulations. The plasticizer content varied in the range 0–15 wt % and mechanical, thermal and morphological characterizations were used to assess the potential of these environmentally friendly modifiers. Results from impact tests show a general increase in the impact-absorbed energy for all the samples modified with bio-oils. The addition of 2.5 wt % of ELO to Arboform (5.4 kJ/m2) was able to double the quantity of absorbed energy (11.1 kJ/m2) and this value slightly decreased for samples containing 5 and 10 wt %. A similar result was obtained with the addition of MLO at 5 wt %, with an improvement of 118%. The results of tensile and flexural tests also show that ELO and MLO addition increased the tensile strength as the percentage of both oils increased, even if higher values were obtained with lower percentages of maleinized oil due to the possible presence of ester bonds formed between multiple maleic groups present in MLO and the hydroxyl groups of the matrix. Thermal characterization confirmed that the mobility of polymer chains was easier in the presence of ELO molecules. On the other hand, MLO presence delayed the crystallization event, predominantly acting as an anti-nucleating agent, interrupting the folding or packing process. Both chemically modified vegetable oils also efficiently improved the thermal stability of the neat matrix.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296524 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Effect of Pretreatment of Nanocomposite PES-Fe3o4 Separator on Microbial Fuel Cells Performance
POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
Autore/i: Bavasso, I.; Di Palma, L.; Puglia, D.; Luzi, F.; Dominici, F.; Tirillo, J.; Sarasini, F.; Torre, L.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Nanocomposite membranes based on polyethersulfone (PES) and nanomagnetite have been investigated with regards to the effect of pretreatments on the electrochemical performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Nanocomposite membranes containing various amounts of Fe3O4 (5, 10, and 20 wt%) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and tensile tests. The application in MFC systems requires also chemical characterizations such as ion exchange capacity, water uptake, and oxygen permeability. The best formulation (PES10) showed electrochemical properties similar to the PES20. With the aim of obtaining a high‐performance membrane with a low filler dosage, a pretreatment procedure (1 h of boiling step in deionized water and 1 h of immersion in 0.5 M of H2SO4) was adopted. The results of such pretreatment in terms of maximum power and current density were 10.59 ± 0.72 mW/m2 and 52.07 ± 0.86 mA/m2, respectively. The adoption of a pretreatment avoids the need of higher amount of nanofillers that can affect membrane surface roughness and its processing. Overall, the nanocomposite membranes represent a suitable technology in the MFC process
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296530 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Biocomposites based on plasticized wheat flours: Effect of bran content on thermomechanical behavior
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Dominici, F.; Luzi, F.; Benincasa, P.; Torre, L.; Puglia, D.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In the present work, the effect of different bran content on the overall thermomechanical behavior of plasticized wheat flours (thermoplastic wheat flour; TPWF) was investigated. Refined flour (F0) with negligible bran fiber content, F1 flour (whole grain flour, 20% wt. bran), F3 (50% wt. bran) and F2 (F1:F3, 50:50) film samples were realized by extrusion process. The effect of TPWF blending with two different biopolymers (polycaprolactone and poly butyrate adipate terephthalate), combined with the presence of citric acid as compatibilizer was also considered. Results from FESEM analysis and tensile characterization demonstrated that PCL was able to reach improved compatibility with the plasticized flour fraction at intermediate bran content (F2 based formulation) when 25% wt. of biopolymeric phase was added. Additionally, it was proved that improvements can be achieved in both thermal and mechanical performance when higher shear rate (120 rpm) and low temperature profiles (Tset 2 = 130–135–140◦ C) are selected. Disintegrability of the TPWF basic formulations in compositing conditions within 21 days was also confirmed; at the same time, an absence of any phytotoxic event of compost itself was registered. The obtained results confirmed the suitability of these materials, realized by adding different bran contents, to mechanically compete with bioplastics obtained by using purified starches.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296476 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Effect of Lemon Waste Natural Dye and Essential Oil Loaded into Laminar Nanoclays on Thermomechanical and Color Properties of Polyester Based Bionanocomposites
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Micó-Vicent, Bàrbara; Viqueira, Valentin; Ramos, Marina; Luzi, Francesca; Dominici, Franco; Torre, Luigi; Jiménez, Alfonso; Puglia, Debora; Garrigós, María Carmen
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In this work, polyester-based nanocomposites added with laminar nanoclays (calcined hydrotalcite, HT, and montmorillonite, MMT) loaded with lemon waste natural dye (LD) and essential oil (LEO) were prepared and characterized. The optimal conditions to synthetize the hybrid materials were obtained by using statistically designed experiments. The maximum LD adsorption with HT was found using 5 wt% of surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate), 5 wt% of mordant (aluminum potassium sulfate dodecahydrate) and 50% (v/v) ethanol. For MMT, 10 wt% of surfactant (cetylpyridinium bromide), 5 wt% of mordant, 1 wt% of (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane and 100% distilled water were used. LEO adsorption at 300 wt% was maximized with MMT, 10 wt% of surfactant and 50 °C following an evaporation/adsorption process. The obtained hybrid nanofillers were incorporated in a polyester-based matrix (INZEA) at different loadings (3, 5, and 7 wt%) and the obtained samples were characterized in terms of thermal stability, tensile behavior, and color properties. HT_LEM-based samples showed a bright yellow color compared to MMT_LEM ones. The presence of lemon hybrid pigments in INZEA-based systems produced a remarkable variation in CIELAB color space values, which was more visible with increasing the nanofillers ratio. A limited mechanical enhancement and reduced thermal stability was observed with the nanopigments addition, suggesting a limited extent of intercalation/exfoliation of MMT and HT in the polymer matrix. MMT_LEM pigments showed higher thermal stability than HT_LEM ones. A significant increase in Young's modulus of nanocomposites loaded with hybrid LEO was observed compared to the biopolymer matrix. The LEO inclusion into the nanoclays efficiently improved its thermal stability, especially for MMT.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296474 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Effect of SWCNT Content and Water Vapor Adsorption on the Electrical Properties of Cellulose Nanocrystal-Based Nanohybrids
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. C
Autore/i: Dehesa, A. A.; Luzi, F.; Puglia, D.; Lizundia, E.; Armentano, I.; Torre, L.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-based free-standing conductive films were prepared by introducing different contents of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by an evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) process, using water as the sole solvent. The effect of SWCNT content on the morphology, thermal stability, and electric and dielectric properties of CNC films has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In order to investigate the effect of SWCNTs on the conduction mechanism of biobased nanohybrids, a detailed study on electrical and dielectric properties was conducted in DC and AC modes. The influence process parameters in terms of the dispersing agent and sonication method and the specific storage humidity conditions (RH = 0, 53, and 75%) were thoroughly investigated. The results arising from AC impedance spectroscopy were analyzed with respect to phase angle θ, the impedance imaginary part, and Nyquist plots, revealing the pivotal role of both SWCNT concentration and relative humidity in the electrical properties of nanohybrids. As a result, this work sheds light on the conducting mechanism of films based on cellulose nanoparticles in the presence of carbonaceous nanofillers.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296507 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
UV Protective, Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Compostable Polylactic Acid Composites Containing Pristine and Chemically Modified Lignin Nanoparticles
MOLECULES
Autore/i: Cavallo, Ema; He, Xiaoyan; Luzi, Francesca; Dominici, Franco; Cerrutti, Patricia; Bernal, Celina; Foresti, Maria Laura; Torre, Luigi; Puglia, Debora
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Polylactic acid (PLA) films containing 1 wt % and 3 wt % of lignin nanoparticles (pristine (LNP), chemically modified with citric acid (caLNP) and acetylated (aLNP)) were prepared by extrusion and characterized in terms of their overall performance as food packaging materials. Morphological, mechanical, thermal, UV-Vis barrier, antioxidant and antibacterial properties were assayed; appropriate migration values in food simulants and disintegration in simulated composting conditions were also verified. The results obtained indicated that all lignin nanoparticles succeeded in conferring UV-blocking, antioxidant and antibacterial properties to the PLA films, especially at the higher filler loadings assayed. Chemical modification of the fillers partially reduced the UV protection and the antioxidant properties of the resulting composites, but it induced better nanoparticles dispersion, reduced aggregates size, enhanced ductility and improved aesthetic quality of the films through reduction of the characteristic dark color of lignin. Migration tests and disintegration assays of the nanocomposites in simulated composting conditions indicated that, irrespectively of their formulation, the multifunctional nanocomposite films prepared behaved similarly to neat PLA.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/308322 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Durability and weatherability of a styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer-based sensing skin for civil infrastructure applications
SENSORS AND ACTUATORS. A, PHYSICAL
Autore/i: Downey, A.; Pisello, A. L.; Fortunati, E.; Fabiani, C.; Luzi, F.; Torre, L.; Ubertini, F.; Laflamme, S.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296522 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Valorization and extraction of cellulose nanocrystals from North African grass: Ampelodesmos mauritanicus (Diss)
CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS
Autore/i: Luzi, F.; Puglia, D.; Sarasini, F.; Tirillò, J.; Maffei, Giovanni; Zuorro, A.; Lavecchia, Raffaele; Kenny, J. M.; Torre, L.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The aim of this research activity was based on the revalorization of Amplodesmos mauritanicus (Diss), an African grass largely presented in the Algerian territory. Diss stems were selected as native botanic material for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). Two different pretreatment steps were carried out to extract CNC from Amplodesmos mauritanicus stems and the following acidic hydrolysis procedure allowed to extract/obtain cellulose nanocrystals in aqueous suspension. The effect of the two different pretreatments, based essentially on chemical or enzymatic treatments, were deeply investigated and the properties compared. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were considered for the characterization of raw material, chemical or enzymatic treated Diss stems and CNC extracted from both chemical and enzymatic pretreated cellulose.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296517 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Development of Mg-Zn-Al-CO3 ternary LDH and its curability in epoxy/amine system
PROGRESS IN ORGANIC COATINGS
Autore/i: Karami, Z.; Jouyandeh, M.; Ali, J. A.; Ganjali, M. R.; Aghazadeh, M.; Maadani, M.; Rallini, M.; Luzi, F.; Torre, L.; Puglia, D.; Saeb, M. R.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Labeling epoxy/layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites for properties requires a priori curability estimation. The co-precipitation method was applied in synthesis of Mg-Zn-Al ternary LDH and intercalation with carbonate anion led to development of Mg-Zn-Al-CO3-LDH. The structure of developed ternary LDH was studied by XRD, FTIR and TGA/DTG analyses. Nonisothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at heating rates of 2, 5, 7 and 10 °C/min was used to evaluate the curing potential of low-filled epoxy/LDH nanocomposite by labeling them for curability. It was unraveled by the use of Cure Index that even by using well-synthesized Mg-Zn-Al-CO3-LDH ternary structure the epoxy curing was hindered, underlining the importance of curability estimation before dealing with properties of epoxy/LDH systems. It can be concluded by accepting Poor label for the studied system that although carbonate ion deposition in between galleries enlarged interlayer space it inevitably confined collision between epoxy and amine curing precursor. This negative effect was signaled by a significant fall in heat release amount of nanocomposites sample compared to the neat epoxy irrespective of heating history
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296510 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Thermal and mechanical behavior of thermoplastic composites reinforced with fibers enzymatically extracted from Ampelodesmos mauritanicus
POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
Autore/i: Sarasini, F.; Tirillo, J.; Maffei, G.; Zuorro, A.; Lavecchia, R.; Luzi, F.; Puglia, D.; Torre, L.; Maghchiche, A.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This work investigates the morphology, the thermal, and mechanical properties of technical fibers extracted from the Ampelodesmos mauritanicus (Diss) grass using a process that combines mechanical, mild chemical, and enzymatic steps. The structure and the thermal stability of Diss fibers make them suitable as a reinforcing filler in polymer composites, which was assessed by manufacturing biocomposites with improved stiffness and a tensile strength not degraded by Diss fibers when compared to those of a commodity polymer and a biodegradable one, namely polypropylene and poly(lactic acid). This work confirms that enzyme mixtures obtained from commercially available products of relatively low cost can represent a simple and environmentally friendly means to extract less common natural fibers
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296512 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
A Novel Class of Cost Effective and High Performance Composites Based on Terephthalate Salts Reinforced Polyether Ether Ketone
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Dominici, Franco; Puglia, Debora; Luzi, Francesca; Sarasini, Fabrizio; Rallini, Marco; Torre, Luigi
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK)-based nanocomposites have been realized with incorporation (0-30 wt %) of anhydrous calcium terephthalate salts (CATAS), synthetized by reaction of terephtalic acid with the metal (Ca) oxide, by means of a melt processing. Their structure, morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties have been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy observations confirmed homogeneous dispersion of nanometer-sized fillers and a toughened fracture morphology even at the higher content, while thermal characterization confirmed an unvaried thermal stability and unmodified crystalline structure of the reference PEEK matrix. A negligible nucleating effect was evidenced, while a blocking effect of the amorphous phase fraction provide composites with increased stiffness, confirmed by enhanced values of G' and shifts of glass transition peak to higher temperatures, for restriction in chain mobility imposed by CATAS. The proposed solutions aimed to enlarge the application range of high performance costly PEEK-based composites, by using thermally stable nanofillers with limited costs and easily controllable synthesis phase.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296526 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Gallic Acid and Quercetin as Intelligent and Active Ingredients in Poly(vinyl alcohol) Films for Food Packaging
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Luzi, Francesca; Pannucci, Elisa; Santi, Luca; Kenny, José Maria; Torre, Luigi; Bernini, Roberta; Puglia, Debora
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Gallic acid (GA) and quercetin (QC) were used as active ingredients in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film formulations obtained by solvent casting process. The effect of two different percentages (5 and 10 % wt.) on morphological behavior, thermal stability, optical, mechanical, and release properties of PVA were investigated, while migration with food stimulants and antioxidant properties were tested taking into account the final application as food packaging systems. The results showed how different dispersability in PVA water solutions gave different results in term of deformability (mean value of ε PVA/5GA = 280% and ε PVA/5QC = 255%, with 190% for neat PVA), comparable values for antioxidant activity at the high contents (Radical Scavenging Activity, RSA(%) PVA/10GA = 95 and RSA(%) PVA/10QC = 91) and different coloring attitude of the polymeric films. It was proved that GA, even if it represents the best antioxidant ingredient to be used with PVA and can be easily dispersed in water, it gives more rigid films in comparison to QC, that indeed was more efficient in tuning the deformability of the PVA films, due the presence of sole hydroxyl groups carrying agent. The deviation of the film coloring towards greenish tones for GA films and redness for QC films after 7 and within 21 days in the simulated conditions confirmed the possibility of using easy processable PVA films as active and intelligent films in food packaging.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296479 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Bio- and fossil-based polymeric blends and nanocomposites for packaging: Structure-property relationship
MATERIALS
Autore/i: Luzi, Francesca; Torre, Luigi; Kenny, José Maria; Puglia, Debora
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In the present review, the possibilities for blending of commodities and bio-based and/or biodegradable polymers for packaging purposes has been considered, limiting the analysis to this class of materials without considering blends where both components have a bio-based composition or origin. The production of blends with synthetic polymeric materials is among the strategies to modulate the main characteristics of biodegradable polymeric materials, altering disintegrability rates and decreasing the final cost of different products. Special emphasis has been given to blends functional behavior in the frame of packaging application (compostability, gas/water/light barrier properties, migration, antioxidant performance). In addition, to better analyze the presence of nanosized ingredients on the overall behavior of a nanocomposite system composed of synthetic polymers, combined with biodegradable and/or bio-based plastics, the nature and effect of the inclusion of bio-based nanofillers has been investigated.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296500 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Thermal, antioxidant and swelling behaviour of transparent polyvinyl (alcohol) films in presence of hydrophobic citric acid-modified lignin nanoparticles
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES
Autore/i: He, Xiaoyan; Luzi, Francesca; Hao, Xiaolong; Yang, Weijun; Torre, Luigi; Xiao, Zefang; Xie, Yanjun; Puglia, Debora
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Lignin nanoparticles (LNP) have been esterified and etherified by citric acid and then blended with poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) at various loading levels (up to 10 wt%). Poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films containing unmodified and modified lignin nanoparticles (LNP and MLNP) were prepared through solvent casting approach. Microscopic investigation of films fractured surfaces confirmed that MLNP could be evenly dispersed in PVA matrix, and no macroscopic phase separation was generated in the nanocomposite films. Water contact angle, swelling efficiency and moisture adsorption properties of LNP and MLNP based films were measured and compared, revealing an overall increase of dimensional stability and reduced moisture adsorption for MLNP nanocomposites. MLNP based nanocomposite films outperformed the films containing LNP in antioxidant property and transparency, slight sacrificing in UV-absorbing, confirming these materials as promising candidates for applications requiring high antioxidant potential and improved performance towards light absorbance.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296491 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Extraction of nanostructured starch from purified granules of waxy and non-waxy barley cultivars
INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS
Autore/i: Del Buono, Daniele; Luzi, Francesca; Benincasa, Paolo; Kenny, José Maria; Torre, Luigi; Puglia, Debora
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Waxy and non-waxy barley flours were selected as native material for the extraction, by acidic hydrolysis, of starch nanoparticles (NPs), with the main aim of evaluating how their different amylose/amylopectin ratio affected NPs structural characteristics. To this scope, two approaches based, respectively, on the use of NaCl/toluene (called organic treatment) and of sodium hydroxide solutions (called alkali treatment) were adopted in order to purify the waxy flours to give starch granules. Morphological investigations of waxy flour after alkali and organic treatments, before and after acetone washing, showed that the isolation methods of the starch did not affect the general morphologic characteristics of starch granules. The method found to provide the best outcomes in terms of thermal and morphological properties was also applied to purify the non-waxy barley. The results confirmed that waxy starch characterized by granules of smaller dimensions (WS) gave amorphous nanoparticles (WNP) with reduced mean diameter and thermal stability with respect to NPs obtained from non-waxy barley flour.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296502 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Natural fiber biodegradable composites and nanocomposites: A biomedical application
Biomass, Biopolymer-Based Materials, and Bioenergy
Autore/i: Luzi, Francesca; Puglia, Debora; Torre, Luigi
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: The growing interest for “green” materials for biomedical applications has increased in recent years. This attention was due to researchers, patients, and the medical world searching for several solutions to their challenges, such as the need to replace, repair, or substitute tissues or organs. In this context, recently tissue engineering has been the focus of the development and application of biodegradable polymers obtained from natural sources (vegetable and animal), for example: collagen, chitosan, chitin, starch, gelatin, alginate, and cellulose. These materials represent a valid alternative to replace and substitute petrochemical products in biomedical applications. However, synthetic aliphatic polymers, such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(glycolides) (PGA), and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) have also attracted wide attention for their biocompatibility and biodegradability in the human body and have been extensively studied and characterized to develop medical devices. This chapter reports on the most relevant results about the use of natural fibers or nanofillers extracted from natural fibers as reinforcement phases for the production of composite materials for biomedical applications. The development of composites and nanocomposites has emerged in the last two decades as an efficient approach to upgrade the functional and structural properties of synthetic and/or natural polymers. In addition, the introduction of nanofillers into biodegradable polymers to produce nanocomposites allows preparing a new class of biodegradable materials with enhanced and tuneable thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296469 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Combined effect of cellulose nanocrystals, carvacrol and oligomeric lactic acid in PLA_PHB polymeric films
CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS
Autore/i: Luzi, Francesca; Dominici, Franco; Armentano, Ilaria; Fortunati, Elena; Burgos, Nuria; Fiori, Stefano; Jiménez, Alfonso; Kenny, José M.; Torre, Luigi
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Biodegradable multicomponent films based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) plasticized with oligomeric lactic acid (OLA), reinforced with synthetized cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and modified by a natural additive with antimicrobial activity (carvacrol) were formulated and processed by extrusion. Morphological, mechanical, thermal, migration and barrier properties were tested to determine the effect of different components in comparison with neat poly(lactic acid). Results showed the positive effect of CNC in the five components based films, with the increase of the Young’s modulus of the PLA_PHB_10Carv_15OLA, associated with an increase in the elongation at break (from 150% to 410%), by showing an OTR reduction of 67%. Disintegrability in compost conditions and enzymatic degradation were tested to evaluate the post-use of these films. All formulations disintegrated in less than 17 days, while proteinase K preferentially degraded the amorphous regions, and crystallinity degree of the nanocomposite films increased as a consequence of enzyme action.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296488 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Design and characterization of PLA bilayer films containing lignin and cellulose nanostructures in combination with umbelliferone as active ingredient
FRONTIERS IN CHEMISTRY
Autore/i: Iglesias Montes, M. L.; Luzi, F.; Dominici, F.; Torre, L.; Cyras, V. P.; Manfredi, L. B.; Puglia, D.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) bilayer films, containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) or lignin nanoparticles (LNP) and Umbelliferone (UMB) were extruded and successfully layered by thermo-compression starting from monolayer films. Lignocellulosic nanostructures were used in PLA based film as nanofillers at 3 wt.%, while UMB was used as active ingredient (AI) at 15 wt.%. The effects of processing techniques, presence, typology and content of lignocellulosic nanoparticles have been analyzed and thermal, morphological, mechanical and optical characterization of PLA nanocomposites have been made. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies evaluated the presence of nanofillers and AI at chemical level. Bilayer formulations showed a good interfacial adhesion and improved stress at break with respect of PLA monolayers, although they were less stretchable and transparent. Data obtained from thermal, colorimetric and transparency investigations underlined that the presence of lignocellulosic nanofillers and AI in PLA monolayer and bilayer films induced relevant alterations in terms of overall color properties and thermal stability, while antioxidant activity of umbelliferone was enhanced by the addition of lignin in produced materials.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296495 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Bio-polyethylene-based composites reinforced with alkali and palmitoyl chloride-treated coffee silverskin
MOLECULES
Autore/i: Dominici, F.; Garcia, D. G.; Fombuena, V.; Luzi, F.; Puglia, D.; Torre, L.; Balart, R.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This work investigates the feasibility of using coffee silverskin (CSS) as a reinforcing agent in biobased polyethylene (BioPE) composites, by adding it in bulk and thin film samples. The effect of two different treatments, alkali bleaching (CSS_A) and esterification with palmitoyl chloride (CSS_P), on mechanical, thermal, morphological and water absorption behavior of produced materials at different CSS loading (10, 20 and 30 wt %) was investigated. A reactive graft copolymerization of BioPE with maleic anhydride was considered in the case of alkali treated CSS. It was found that, when introduced in bulk samples, improvement in the elastic modulus and a reduction in strain at maximum stress were observed with the increase in CSS fraction for the untreated and treated CSS composites, while the low aspect ratio of the CSS particles and their poor adhesion with the polymeric matrix were responsible for reduced ductility in films, decreasing crystallinity values and reduction of elastic moduli. When CSS_A and CSS_P are introduced in the matrix, a substantial reduction in the water uptake is also obtained in films, mainly due to presence of maleated PE, that builds up some interactions to eliminate the amounts of OH groups and hydrophobized CSS, due to the weakened absorption capacity of the functionalized CSS.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296472 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Active role of ZnO nanorods in thermomechanical and barrier performance of poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) formulations for flexible packaging
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Luzi, F.; Di Michele, A.; Torre, L.; Puglia, D.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (EVOH) films containing zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO Nrods) at 0.1, 0.5, and 1 wt%, were realized by solvent casting. The effect of ZnO Nrods content on morphological, thermal, optical, mechanical, and oxygen permeability properties were analyzed. In addition, moisture content and accelerated-aging test studies were performed, with the intention to determine the influence of zinc oxide nanofillers on the functional characteristics of realized packaging systems. Tensile properties showed increased values for strength and deformation-at-break in EVOH-based formulations reinforced with 0.1 and 0.5 wt% of zinc oxide nanorods. Results from the colorimetric and transparency investigations underlined that the presence of ZnO Nrods in EVOH copolymer did not induce evident alterations. In addition, after the accelerated-aging test, the colorimetric test confirmed the possibility for these materials to be used in the packaging sector. This behavior was induced by the presence of zinc oxide nanofillers that act as a UV block that made them useful as an efficient absorber of UV radiation.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296505 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Novel nanoscaled materials from lignocellulosic sources: Potential applications in the agricultural sector
Handbook of Ecomaterials
Autore/i: Fortunati, E.; Verma, D.; Luzi, F.; Mazzaglia, A.; Torre, L.; Balestra, G. M.
Editore: Springer International Publishing
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: The agricultural sector is facing pivotal global challenges such as climate change, urbanization, sustainable use of resources, and environmental issues. These situations are further exacerbated by the growing food demand that will be needed to sustain an estimated population growth from the current level of about 6 billion to 9 billion by 2050. Plant-based agricultural production is the base of the broad agriculture systems providing food, feed, fiber, and fuels. While the demand for crop yield will rapidly increase in the future, the agriculture and natural resources are limited. In this scenario, traditional strategies for plant protection often result insufficient, and the application of chemical-based pesticides has negative effects on the environment, animals, and humans. Nanotechnology has the potential to conceive products based on environmentally friendly natural polymers which, in addition of being biodegradable, can also be obtained from natural sources and/or biowastes. Specifically, lignocellulosic materials are the most promising feedstock as natural and renewable resources essential to the functioning of modern industrial societies, and the huge amounts of lignocellulosic biomass can potentially be converted into high-value products for different final applications. Current research trends and recent advances about the extraction methodologies and properties of nanostructured materials and systems from lignocellulosic biomass and their potential applications in sustainable plant protection for agriculture management will be presented in this chapter, while potential future applications will be analyzed and discussed.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296463 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Cure Index for labeling curing potential of epoxy/LDH nanocomposites: A case study on nitrate anion intercalated Ni-Al-LDH
PROGRESS IN ORGANIC COATINGS
Autore/i: Karami, Z.; Jouyandeh, M.; Ali, J. A.; Ganjali, M. R.; Aghazadeh, M.; Maadani, M.; Rallini, M.; Luzi, F.; Torre, L.; Puglia, D.; Akbari, V.; Saeb, M. R.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Curing process of thermoset nanocomposites strongly depends on the nature and functionality of nanoparticles. In the present work, Ni-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was synthesized and intercalated with nitrate anion via solvothermal method to form Ni-Al-NO3 LDH and characterized by FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TGA techniques. Characterization proved the synthesis of Ni-Al LDH intercalated with nitrate anion by d-spacing value of 0.76 nm. Epoxy nanocomposite containing 0.1 wt.% of the synthesized LDH was prepared and its curing potential was studied by nonisothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). According to the results and qualitative evaluations made by the use of Cure Index (CI), epoxy nanocomposite containing Ni-Al-NO3 LDHs revealed Excellent cure thanks to the participation of nitrate anion in epoxide ring opening reaction. The anions attack to the carbon atom of epoxide rings and breaking down the CO band led to facilitation of the curing reaction and formation of a more condensed cross-linked network. It was recognized that the CI can be used in labeling epoxy/LDH nanocomposites for curing potential demonstration.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296478 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Nanostructured starch combined with hydroxytyrosol in poly(vinyl alcohol) based ternary films as active packaging system
CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS
Autore/i: Luzi, Francesca; Fortunati, Elena; Di Michele, Alessandro; Pannucci, Elisa; Botticella, Ermelinda; Santi, Luca; Maria Kenny, José; Torre, Luigi; Roberta, Bernini
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Novel ternary films have been realized by using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as polymeric matrix, nanostructured starch as reinforcement phase and hydroxytyrosol (HTyr), a low-molecular phenolic compound present in olive oil, as antioxidant agent. Nanostructured starch, in the form of starch nanocrystals (NC) and nanoparticles (NP) obtained by acid hydrolysis and ultrasound irradiation of starch derived from the bread wheat variety Cadenza (WT, amylose content 33%) and a derived-high amylose line (HA, amylose content 75%), was considered. The developed multifunctional films were characterized in terms of morphological, thermal and optical properties, water absorption capacity, overall and specific migration into a food simulant and antioxidant properties. Experimental data showed a prolonged release of HTyr from all ternary films and the released HTyr retained a strong antioxidant activity. The data, compared to those of PVA/HTyr binary films, demonstrated the key role of nanostructured starch in the ternary formulations in promoting a gradual release of HTyr. Overall, PVA fillm combined with nanoparticles from low amylose starch and hydroxytyrosol resulted as the most promising ternary formulation for food packaging applications.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296481 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Life Cycle Analysis of Extruded Films Based on Poly(lactic acid)/Cellulose Nanocrystal/Limonene: A Comparative Study with ATBC Plasticized PLA/OMMT Systems
JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Autore/i: Petrucci, R.; Fortunati, E.; Puglia, D.; Luzi, F.; Kenny, J. M.; Torre, L.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Life cycle analysis (LCA) of limonene plasticized poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) extracted, by acid hydrolysis, from Phormium tenax leaf fibres, was assessed and compared with the results of acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticized PLA films, having equivalent mechanical properties, containing organo-modified montmorillonite (OMMT). Eco-Indicator 99 tool has been adopted as the main method for life cycle assessment. Results indicated that, despite CNC are biobased fillers obtained by natural sources, the related chemical extraction leads to a large environmental footprint and a relatively relevant energy expense. LCA characterization of these films demonstrated that the environmental impact of PLA/limonene film reinforced with 1% in weight of CNC (PLA/CNC/limonene) is comparable to the environmental impact of polylactic acid films reinforced with OMMT and plasticized with a petroleum based plasticizer (ATBC) (PLA/OMTT/ATBC). A “cradle to gate” approach has been considered for both the film typologies.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296509 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Recycling coffee silverskin in sustainable composites based on a poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) matrix
INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS
Autore/i: Sarasini, Fabrizio; Tirillò, Jacopo; Zuorro, Antonio; Maffei, Gianluca; Lavecchia, Roberto; Puglia, Debora; Dominici, Franco; Luzi, Francesca; Valente, Teodoro; Torre, Luigi
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This work investigates the feasibility of using coffee silverskin (CSS), one of the most abundant coffee waste products, as a reinforcing agent in biopolymer based composites. The chemical composition, antioxidant activity and morphology of CSS were studied by specific chemical essays and scanning electron microscopy, whilst the thermal stability and the functional groups available on the surface were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The thermal stability and fibrous structure of CSS make it suitable as a reinforcing filler in polymer composites, which was confirmed by manufacturing biocomposites with improved stiffness and tensile strength, not degraded by CSS addition when compared to the neat biopolymer.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296529 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Enhancement of paperboard performance as packaging material by layering with plasticized polyhydroxybutyrate/nanocellulose coatings
JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE
Autore/i: Seoane, I. T.; Luzi, F.; Puglia, D.; Cyras, V. P.; Manfredi, L. B.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Paper presents low water vapor barrier capacity that is considered a limitation for its use in packaging applications. Therefore, the effect of using polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)‐based coatings containing a plasticizer [Tributyrin (TB)] and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) in a bilayer configuration with paperboard is investigated in this work. PHB/paperboard composites are obtained by compression molding. It is found that the addition of TB and CNC in the coating formulation favored both the interaction between layers in the final composite and the enhancement of tensile properties for PHB/paperboard composites. Also, it is proved that water vapor permeation of bilayer composites is reduced by the addition of CNC in the PHB‐based layer. Disintegration test of the films has also been carried out under composting conditions, according to the standard ISO 20200, demonstrating that all the studied samples reached more than 90% of disintegration after 49 days of incubation.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296486 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Citric Acid as Green Modifier for Tuned Hydrophilicity of Surface Modified Cellulose and Lignin Nanoparticles
ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING
Autore/i: He, Xiaoyan; Luzi, Francesca; Yang, Weijun; Xiao, Zefang; Torre, Luigi; Xie, Yanjun; Puglia, Debora
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This paper proposes one straightforward route for citric acid modification of two different lignocellulosic products, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and lignin nanoparticles (LNP). Modified cellulose nanocrystals (MCNC) and lignin nanoparticles (MLNP) were characterized by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible/near-infrared (UV-vis/NIR) spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The reaction mechanism between citric acid and both CNC and LNP was discussed. The resultant MCNC exhibited improved dispersion in polar solvents, better thermal stability as compared with CNC while, in the case of LNP, a slight increase in thermal stability and alteration of MLNP dispersibility in polar solvents were proved. These results confirmed how esterified (MCNC) and etherified (MLNP) biobased nanoparticles with tuned hydrophilicity, obtained by a treatment with a low cost, sustainable and easily soluble cross-linker, have potential for widespread applicability in the field of polymeric based nanocomposites having different polarity.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296515 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Influence of gallic acid and umbelliferone on structural and functional properties of poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) films for food packaging
AIP Conference Proceedings
Autore/i: Luzi, F.; Puglia, D.; Dominici, F.; Torre, L.
Editore: American Institute of Physics Inc.
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (EVOH) based systems containing two different active ingredients (AIs), gallic acid (GA) and umbelliferone (UMB) at 5 wt. % and 15 wt. %, were successfully produced by solvent casting and extrusion. The effects of process techniques, active ingredients presence, content and typology on morphological, thermal, mechanical and optical properties of EVOH based films have been analyzed. In addition, migration and radical scavenging activity and moisture content studies were performed, with the objective of evaluating the effect of gallic acid and umbelliferone on the structural and functional properties of relevant/strategic importance in food packaging sector. Data obtained from optical properties (transparency and colorimetric) investigation underlined that the additions of AIs in EVOH copolymer induced important alterations, whereas migration to food simulants data restricted the use of produced films in contact with fatty foods. The use of GA and UMB clearly induced positive antioxidant activity confirming the useful use of extracts in the food packaging sector.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296468 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Effect of different compatibilizers on sustainable composites based on a PHBV/PBAT matrix filled with coffee silverskin
POLYMERS
Autore/i: Sarasini, Fabrizio; Luzi, Francesca; Dominici, Franco; Maffei, Gianluca; Iannone, Annalaura; Zuorro, Antonio; Lavecchia, Roberto; Torre, Luigi; Carbonell-Verdu, Alfredo; Balart, Rafael; Puglia, Debora
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This work investigates the feasibility of using coffee silverskin (CSS), one of the most abundant coffee waste products, as a reinforcing agent in biopolymer-based composites. The effect of using two compatibilizers, a maleinized linseed oil (MLO) and a traditional silane (APTES, (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane), on mechanical and thermal behavior of sustainable composites based on a poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate/Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) PBAT/PHBV blend filled with coffee silverskin, in both the as-received state and after the extraction of antioxidants, was studied. Thermal (by differential scanning calorimetry), mechanical (by tensile testing), and morphological properties (by scanning electron microscopy) of injection molded biocomposites at three different weight contents (10, 20, and 30 wt %) were considered and discussed as a function of compatibilizer type. The effects of extraction procedure and silane treatment on surface properties of CSS were investigated by infrared spectroscopy. Obtained results confirmed that extracted CSS and silane-treated CSS provided the best combination of resistance properties and ductility, while MLO provided a limited compatibilization effect with CSS, due to the reduced amount of hydroxyl groups on CSS after extraction, suggesting that the effects of silane modification were more significant than the introduction of plasticizing agent
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296483 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Nanocomposites Based on Biodegradable Polymers
MATERIALS
Autore/i: Armentano, Ilaria; Puglia, Debora; Luzi, Francesca; Arciola, Carla Renata; Morena, Francesco; Martino, Sabata; Torre, Luigi
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In the present review paper, our main results on nanocomposites based on biodegradable polymers (on a time scale from 2010 to 2018) are reported. We mainly focused our attention on commercial biodegradable polymers, which we mixed with different nanofillers and/or additives with the final aim of developing new materials with tunable specific properties. A wide list of nanofillers have been considered according to their shape, properties, and functionalization routes, and the results have been discussed looking at their roles on the basis of different adopted processing routes (solvent-based or melt-mixing processes). Two main application fields of nanocomposite based on biodegradable polymers have been considered: the specific interaction with stem cells in the regenerative medicine applications or as antimicrobial materials and the active role of selected nanofillers in food packaging applications have been critically revised, with the main aim of providing an overview of the authors' contribution to the state of the art in the field of biodegradable polymeric nanocomposites.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296494 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Study of paperboard material layered with plasticized polyhydroxybutyrate/nanocellulose coatings for packaging application
AIP Conference Proceedings
Autore/i: Puglia, D.; Luzi, F.; Seoane, I. T.; Cyras, V. P.; Manfredi, L. B.; Torre, L.
Editore: Alberto D’Amore, Domenico Acierno, Luigi Grassia
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: The effect of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-based coatings combined with a plasticizer (Tributyrin, TB), and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) in a bilayer configuration with paperboard was investigated. PHB/paperboard composite formulations were processed by compression molding, using 15wt% of PHB with respect of paperboard. The presence of TB and CNC in the coating system favored both the interaction between layers and the enhancement of tensile properties for PHB/paperboard composites. In addition, the presence CNC in the PHB-based layer improved the water vapor permeability of bilayer composites. Disintegration in composting condition of PHB/paperboard composites was carried out according to the standard ISO 20200. The test permitted to demonstrate that all the studied samples disintegrated completely in less than 49 days of incubation.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296466 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Effect of gallic acid and umbelliferone on thermal, mechanical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of poly (vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) films
POLYMER DEGRADATION AND STABILITY
Autore/i: Luzi, F.; Puglia, D.; Dominici, F.; Fortunati, E.; Giovanale, G.; Balestra, G. M.; Torre, L.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (EVOH) films containing two different active ingredients (AIs), gallic acid (GA) and umbelliferone (UMB) at 5 wt % and 15 wt %, were successfully produced by solvent casting and extrusion. The effects of process techniques, AIs presence, typology and content on optical, morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of EVOH based films have been investigated. In addition, moisture content, migration and radical scavenging activity, antimicrobial and antifungal studies were performed, with the aim of evaluating the effect of AIs on structural and functional properties of realized food packaging systems. Results from colorimetric and transparency investigation underlined that the presence of AIs in EVOH copolymer induced important alterations, whereas migration to food simulant data restricted the use of produced films to the contact with fatty foods. On the other hand, the use of AIs clearly induced positive antioxidant response, inhibitions of bacterial and antifungal growth, confirming the possibility of practically using these materials in the food packaging sector.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296537 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Durability assessment of soft elastomeric capacitor skin for SHM of wind turbine blades
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Autore/i: Downey, AUSTIN ROBERT JOHNSON; Pisello, Anna Laura; Fortunati, Elena; Fabiani, Claudia; Luzi, Francesca; Torre, Luigi; Ubertini, Filippo; Laflamme, Simon
Editore: SPIE
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296464 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Lignocellulosic Based Bionanocomposites for Different Industrial Applications
CURRENT ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Autore/i: Yang, Weijun; Fortunati, Elena; Luzi, Francesca; Kenny, Jose M.; Torre, Luigi; Puglia, Debora
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Increased awareness to eco-friendliness and finite petroleum resources trigger growing interest in maximizing the use of low environmental impact and renewable materials. In the last decades, lignocellulosic based materials at the nanoscale level have attracted the attention of research and industry, due to their renewable nature and their abundant availability, their high reactivity surface and functionality, their low density and cost. The exceptional physical properties, combined with high aspect ratio and large surface area allow their use in a large variety of polymers at low concentration as compared to composite loading. Recently, in this context, nanocomposite approach was largely investigated as a strategy to upgrade the functional and structural properties of synthetic/ traditional and/or natural polymers, in addition, the combination of sustainable and bioresorbable polymers with bio-based nanofiller opened new perspectives in the self-assembly of nanomaterials for different sectors with tunable thermal, mechanical and degradative properties. In this review article, the addition of lignocellulosic reinforcement phases (lignin and cellulosic-based nanofillers) and their combined effect on physical, functional and structural properties of different polymers (including thermoplastic and thermosetting) were reported and discussed. Considering the required functionality, the role of cellulose and lignin-based nanostructures when embedded in different biopolymers was analyzed and summarized here in terms of different effect (microstructural, thermal-degratative, optical, mechanical, chemical, biological, barrier and degradative characteristics).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296528 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Bio-based Nanocomposites in Food Packaging
Nanomaterials for Food Packaging: Materials, Processing Technologies, and Safety Issues, A volume in Micro and Nano Technologies
Autore/i: Fortunati, E.; Luzi, F.; Yang, W.; Kenny, J. M.; Torre, L.; Puglia, D.
Editore: Elsevier
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296473 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Reinforcement effect of cellulose nanocrystals in thermoplastic polyurethane matrices characterized by different soft/hard segment ratio
POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
Autore/i: Fortunati, E.; Luzi, F.; Janke, A.; Haussler, L.; Pionteck, J.; Kenny, J. M.; Torre, L.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Commercial polyurethanes, characterized by different soft/hard segment ratios, were used as matrices for the production of TPU/cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) nanocomposite films. TPU have excellent mechanical properties, chemical stability, easy processing, and can be used in some different application fields as biomedical sector. The selected grades exhibit excellent abrasion resistance, toughness, transparency, hydrolytic stability, and fungus resistance. In this context, the main objective was to understand how CNC interact with the different structures and composition of commercial TPU and to analyze its effect on the final mechanical, thermal, morphological, and water absorption properties of TPU/CNC systems. The results for morphological investigations underlined that CNC were well individualized and dispersed in TPU matrices. They were able to act as nucleation agents and as mechanical reinforcement phases in the thermoplastic matrices with an evident increase of Young's modulus and the tensile strength induced by the presence of CNC that offered a tailored reinforcement effect in both the elastic and plastic region. The interaction of all systems with water proved that all the materials saturated after 24 h and maintained their original shape, suggesting applicability also in high humidity environmental conditions of the proposed formulations. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 57:521–530, 2017. © 2017 Society of Plastics Engineers.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296532 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Hydroxytyrosol as active ingredient in poly(vinyl alcohol) films for food packaging applications
JOURNAL OF RENEWABLE MATERIALS
Autore/i: Fortunati, E.; Luzi, F.; Fanali, C.; Dugo, L.; Giovanna Belluomo, M.; Torre, L.; Kenny, J. M.; Santi, L.; Bernini, R.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Hydroxytyrosol (HTyr), a biophenol found in extra-virgin olive oil or olive oil by-products, well known for its strong antioxidant activity, was used as active ingredient for poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix to develop film formulations by solvent casting process. The effect of HTyr on the morphological, thermal stability, optical, mechanical and release properties of PVA were investigated, while water absorption capacity, migration with food stimulants, water vapor permeability and antioxidant properties were tested taking into account the final application as food packaging systems. Morphological investigations evidenced homogeneity of all PVA/HTyr films, while the presence of HTyr clearly accounted for an increase of the crystallinity degree of the polymer matrix and also for providing antioxidant activity of the final films. The successful development of novel, environmentally friendly, safe active food packaging materials as an alternative to that which is petroleum based represents solid ground for product improvement and future testing on food.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296484 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Cellulose nanocrystals from Actinidia deliciosa pruning residues combined with carvacrol in PVA_CH films with antioxidant/antimicrobial properties for packaging applications
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES
Autore/i: Luzi, F.; Fortunati, E.; Giovanale, G.; Mazzaglia, A.; Torre, L.; Balestra, G. M.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Kiwi Actinidia deliciosa pruning residues were here used for the first time as precursors for the extraction of high performing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) by applying a bleaching treatment followed by an acidic hydrolysis. The resultant cellulosic nanostructures, obtained by an optimize extraction procedure (0.7% wt/v two times of sodium chlorite NaClO2) followed by an hydrolysis step, were then used as reinforcements phases in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended with natural chitosan (CH) based films and also combined, for the first time, with carvacrol used here as active agent. Morphological and optical characteristics, mechanical response, thermal and migration properties, moisture content and antioxidant and antimicrobial assays were conducted. The morphological, optical and colorimetric results underlined that no particular alterations were induced on the transparency and color of PVA and PVA_CH blend by the presence of CNC and carvacrol, while they were able to modulate the mechanical responses, to induce antioxidant activities maintaining the migration levels below the permitted limits and suggesting the possible application in industrial sectors. Finally, inhibitions on bacterial development were detected for multifunctional systems, suggesting their protective function against microorganisms contamination.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296482 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Functional Properties of Plasticized Bio-Based Poly(Lactic Acid)_Poly(Hydroxybutyrate) (PLA_PHB) Films for Active Food Packaging
FOOD AND BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY
Autore/i: Burgos, Nuria; Armentano, Ilaria; Fortunati, Elena; Dominici, Franco; Luzi, Francesca; Fiori, Stefano; Cristofaro, Francesco; Visai, Livia; Jiménez, Alfonso; Kenny, José M.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Fully bio-based and biodegradable active films based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blended with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and incorporating lactic acid oligomers (OLA) as plasticizers and carvacrol as active agent were extruded and fully characterized in their functional properties for antimicrobial active packaging. PLA_PHB films showed good barrier to water vapor, while the resistance to oxygen diffusion decreased with the addition of OLA and carvacrol. Their overall migration in aqueous food simulant was determined and no significant changes were observed by the addition of carvacrol and OLA to the PLA_PHB formulations. However, the effect of both additives in fatty food simulant can be considered a positive feature for the potential protection of foodstuff with high fat content. Moreover, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the proposed formulations increased by the presence of carvacrol, with enhanced activity against Staphylococcus aureus if compared to Escherichia coli at short and long incubation times. These results underlined the specific antimicrobial properties of these bio-films suggesting their applicability in active food packaging.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296498 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
PLA nanocomposites from Posidonia oceanica waste
Lignocellulosic Fibre and Biomass-Based Composite Materials: Processing, Properties and Applications
Autore/i: Fortunati, E.; Luzi, F.; Torre, L.
Editore: Elsevier Inc.
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: The need to both avoid wastes and find new renewable resources has led to a new and promising research based on the possibility to revalorize the biomass. Different extraction methods were optimized for the extraction of lignocellulosic components from these natural sources, and most of these techniques have actually been adapted to raw materials from agricultural, forest, and marine wastes. In this context, Posidonia oceanica, a Mediterranean marine plant, appears a novel potential material to be revalorized, and some recent studies have focused on its potential use as a source of fillers in polymeric-based films.This chapter reports the most relevant results about the use of fibers and nanostructured materials extracted from P. oceanica waste as reinforcement phases in biodegradable polymers with a special attention on poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based formulations with potential application at an industrial level.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296465 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Processing and characterization of nanocomposite based on poly(butylene/triethylene succinate) copolymers and cellulose nanocrystals
CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS
Autore/i: Fortunati, Elena; Gigli, Matteo; Luzi, Francesca; Dominici, Franco; Lotti, Nadia; Gazzano, Massimo; Cano, Amalia; Chiralt, Amparo; Munari, Andrea; Kenny, Josè Maria; Armentano, Ilaria; Torre, Luigi
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: A new class of biodegradable materials developed by a combination of random eco-friendly copolyesters containing butylene succinate (BS) and triethylene succinate (TES) sequences with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), is proposed and studied. Polymers and nanocomposite films were prepared by an optimized extrusion process to improve the processability and mechanical response for flexible film manufacturing. Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) homopolymer and two random copolyesters containing different amounts of TES co-units, P(BS85TES15) and P(BS70TES30), were synthesized by melt polycondensation. The effect of TES and CNC presence and content on the microstructure, tensile properties, thermal characteristics and disintegration under composting conditions, as well as on the toughening mechanism of the blends was investigated. Material properties were modulated by varying the chemical composition. CNC were used as reinforcement additive and their effect is modulated by the interaction with the three polymeric matrices. The extruded films displayed tunable degradation rates, mechanical properties and wettability, and showed promising results for different industrial applications.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296496 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
PLA nanocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals from Posidonia Oceanica and ZnO nanoparticles for packaging application
JOURNAL OF RENEWABLE MATERIALS
Autore/i: Luzi, Francesca; Fortunati, Elena; A., Jiménez; Puglia, Debora; A., Chiralt; Torre, Luigi
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) based nanocomposites reinforced with 1 wt% of surfactant-modified cellulose nanocrystals (s-CNC) extracted from Posidonia oceanica plant waste and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) at different concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 wt%) were prepared by solvent casting process. Their thermal, morphological, optical, mechanical and water vapor permeability properties were investigated. Tensile testing showed increased values for strength and deformation at break in PLA based formulations reinforced with s-CNC and ZnO NPs as a consequence of better nanofiller dispersion compared to binary films reinforced only with ZnO NPs. Moreover, the effect of s-CNC and ZnO NPs provoked an improvement of barrier properties, highlighting the synergic ability of nanofillers to increase the tortuous path of gas molecules, reducing the water vapor permeability coefficients, a property of fundamental importance in food packaging applications. Finally, antimicrobial activity was evaluated using two bacterial strains, Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296531 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Effective postharvest preservation of kiwifruit and romaine lettuce with a chitosan hydrochloride coating
COATINGS
Autore/i: Fortunati, E.; Giovanale, G.; Luzi, F.; Mazzaglia, A.; Kenny, J. M.; Torre, L.; Balestra, G. M.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Kiwifruits and romaine lettuce, among the most horticulturally-consumed fresh products, were selected to investigate how to reduce damage and losses before commercialization. The film-forming properties, physico-chemical, and morphological characteristics, as well as the antimicrobial response against Botrytis cinerea and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum of chitosan hydrochloride (CH)-based coatings were investigated. The results underlined the film-forming capability of this CH that maintained its physico-chemical characteristics also after dissolution in water. Morphological investigations by FESEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy) underlined a well-distributed and homogeneous thin coating (less than 3-5 μm) on the lettuce leaves that do not negatively affect the food product functionality, guaranteeing the normal breathing of the food. FESEM images also highlighted the good distribution of CH coating on kiwifruit peels. The in vitro antimicrobial assays showed that both the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea and the bacterial growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum were totally inhibited by the presence of CH, whereas in vivo antimicrobial properties were proved for 5-7 days on lettuce and until to 20-25 days on kiwifruits, demonstrating that the proposed coating is able to contrast gray mold frequently caused by the two selected plant pathogens during postharvest phases of fruit or vegetable products.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296467 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Production and characterization of novel PLA PBS based bionanocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals extracted from Carmagnola hemp fibres for food packaging applications
Atti del XXXIV Convegno Nazionale della Società Italiana di Chimica Agraria “Ambiente e sostenibilità: il ruolo della chimica agraria dalla ricerca alla realtà produttiva”
Autore/i: Fortunati, E.; Luzi, F.; Puglia, D.; Pezzolla, D.; Gigliotti, G.; Torre, L.
Editore: Società Italiana di Chimica Agraria, Università degli Studi di Perugia
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296461 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Production and characterization of PLA_PBS biodegradable blends reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals extracted from hemp fibres
INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS
Autore/i: Luzi, F.; Fortunati, E.; Jiménez, A.; Puglia, D.; Pezzolla, D.; Gigliotti, G.; Kenny, J. M.; Chiralt, A.; Torre, L.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) were blended and bionanocomposite films were prepared by solvent casting method adding 1 or 3 wt% of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from Carmagnola carded hemp fibres. Both unmodified (CNC) and surfactant modified (s-CNC) cellulose nanocrystals were loaded to PLA matrix or to PLA_PBS blend in order to produce binary or ternary formulations while the thermal, morphological, mechanical, optical and barrier properties of all the produced systems were deeply investigated. Mechanical analysis showed increased values of Young's modulus in binary and ternary formulations, more evident in the CNC based formulations. The presence of both CNC and s-CNC and the addition of PBS to PLA matrix provoked an improvement of barrier properties. This behaviour could be related to the synergic ability of cellulose nanocrystals to increase the tortuous path of gas molecules with the increase in the crystallinity degree induced by the presence of PBS. The disintegration in composting conditions of different PLA and PLA_PBS based bionanocomposites was also investigated. The results showed that all the formulations disintegrated in less than 17 days while s-CNC were able to promote the disintegration behaviour although the PBS presence hinders the disintegrability. During the composting, the main chemical parameters were investigated in order to assess changes in the composition of the tested mixtures. The organic matter (OM) loss occurred in both control and in the PBS_PLA based bionanocomposites composts in the 90 days of treatment. Neverthless the total organic C content showed values >20; moreover a low concentration in heavy metals in both composts as recommended by the Italian and European law was observed.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296501 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Effect of SWCNT introduction in random copolymers on material properties and fibroblast long term culture stability
POLYMER DEGRADATION AND STABILITY
Autore/i: Armentano, Ilaria; Fortunati, Elena; Gigli, Matteo; Luzi, Francesca; Trotta, Rosa; Bicchi, Ilaria; Soccio, Michelina; Lotti, Nadia; Munari, Andrea; Martino, Sabata; Torre, Luigi; Kenny, Jose Maria
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Polymeric nanostructured biomaterials can be used as synthetic cell interfaces with important applications in the study and control of cellular processes. Herein, we developed multifunctional nanocomposites based on synthesized biodegradable and biocompatible copolyesters of poly(butylene 1,4-trans-cyclohexanedicarboxylate) (PBCE) containing ether–linkages, and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), employed as functional phase. Surface, thermal and mechanical characterization of the polymer and nanocomposite films were performed. The influences of AC conductivity and interfacial polarization on dielectric relaxation process, as well as the correlation between the dielectric behaviors and SWCNT content were investigated by measuring the dielectric properties. The effect of SWCNT incorporation, and amount of ether-oxygen atoms was also investigated in terms of fibroblast long-term culture stability, by performing adhesion and proliferation studies of cells seeded on the biomaterial surface, at different time points. Results showed that polymeric conductive nanocomposites were successfully developed with a low percolation threshold, and SWCNT presence maintained the polymer thermal degradation behavior. Moreover, the culture of primary fibroblasts indicated that these advanced functional materials are biocompatible and guarantee the cell adhesion and growth, being suitable substrates for regenerative medicine applications. Finally, their versatile structure and chemical properties may provide a robust platform to gain insight into cell–biomaterial interactions, being an important step towards the better understanding and control of cell interactions with nanomaterials.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296535 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Effect of hydroxytyrosol methyl carbonate on the thermal,migration and antioxidant properties of PVA-based films for active food packaging
POLYMER INTERNATIONAL
Autore/i: Fortunati, Elena; Luzi, Francesca; Dugo, Laura; Fanali, Chiara; Tripodo, Giusy; Santi, Luca; Kenny, Jose Maria; Torre, Luigi; Bernini, Roberta
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Hydroxytyrosol methyl carbonate (HTyr-MC), a synthetic non-cytotoxic hydroxytyrosol-derived compound showing excellent antioxidant capacity, was obtained in high yield and purity by an ecofriendly procedure and used as active ingredient for poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix. Novel PVA/HTyr-MC binary films were developed by solvent casting in water adding 2%, 5% and 10% by weight of HTyr-MC to PVA. Morphological, thermal and optical properties, water absorption capacity,migration to foodsimulant andantioxidant characteristics ofPVA/HTyr-MCfilmswere finely investigatedin viewof their potential application as active food packagingmaterials. The morphological and transparency studies underlined that HTyr-MCwas homogeneously dispersed in the PVAmatrix and it is able to act as a nucleation agent, influencing the diffusion processes of the water through the polymer chain without negatively affecting the release of the active ingredient. The overall migration levels for all studied formulationswere lower than the migration limits permitted by the current legislation for food contactmaterials while the data of antioxidant assays demonstrated a good antioxidant activity induced by HTyr-MC presence also at the lowest concentration. These novel films represent a valid and sustainable alternative to non-ecofriendly-basedmaterials.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296497 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Extraction of lignocellulosic materials from waste products
Multifunctional Polymeric Nanocomposites Based on Cellulosic Reinforcements
Autore/i: Fortunati, Elena; Luzi, Francesca; Puglia, Debora; Torre, Luigi
Editore: Elsevier
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: The need to both avoid waste production and find new renewable resources has led to new and promising research based on the possibility of revalorizing the biomass producing sustainable chemicals and/or materials. This may play a major role in replacing systems traditionally obtained from non-renewable sources. Most of the low-value biomass is termed lignocellulosic, referring to its main constituent biopolymers: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Different extraction methods were optimized over the years for the extraction of these components from natural fibers and sources, and most of these techniques have been adapted for the extraction of lignocellulosic components from agricultural and forest wastes. This chapter reviews the characteristics, applications, and especially, the extraction methods for lignocellulosic materials (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), focusing on their advantages and drawbacks in terms of technical issues and environmental impact. Also reported and discussed are a number of recent advances developed in our laboratories.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296471 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Revalorization of sunflower stalks as novel sources of cellulose nanofibrils and nanocrystals and their effect on wheat gluten bionanocomposite properties
CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS
Autore/i: Fortunati, Elena; Luzi, Francesca; Jiménez, A.; Gopakumar, D. A.; Puglia, Debora; Thomas, S.; Kenny, Jose Maria; Chiralt, A.; Torre, Luigi
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Novel gluten based bionanocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) extracted from sunflower stalks by respectively a steam explosion treatment and a hydrolysis procedure, were prepared by casting/evaporation. The extracted cellulose nanomaterials, both CNC and CNF, were embedded in gluten matrix and their effect was investigated. Morphological investigations highlighted that gluten based bionanocomposites showed a homogenous morphology, the absence of visible cellulose nanoreinforcements, and the presence of holes for Gluten-CNF nanocomposites. Gluten-CNF showed a reduction of water vapour permeability coefficients but the values are higher respect to gluten reinforced with CNC. This behaviour could be related to the ability of CNC to increase the tortuous path of gas molecules. Moreover, the results from thermal, mechanical and barrier properties confirmed the strong interactions obtained between CNC and gluten matrix during the process. The study suggested the possibility to re-valorise agricultural wastes with potential applications as reinforcement in polymer matrix bionanocomposites.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296490 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Modulation of Acid Hydrolysis Reaction Time for the Extraction of Cellulose Nanocrystals from Posidonia oceanica Leaves
JOURNAL OF RENEWABLE MATERIALS
Autore/i: Luzi, Francesca; Fortunati, Elena; Puglia, Debora; Petrucci, Roberto; Kenny, Jose Maria; Torre, Luigi
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In this research, the revalorization of Posidonia oceanica leaf sea waste was studied and the acid hydrolysis processing times were modulated in order to optimize the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The obtained CNCs were deeply investigated. A two-step treatment was applied to extract cellulose nanocrystals from Posidonia oceanica leaves. First, a chemical treatment leads to the removal of lignin and production of holocellulose, while the second chemical process of acid hydrolysis allows the obtainment of cellulose nanocrystals in aqueous suspension. The unbleached and bleached leaves and cellulose nanocrystals were characterized by using thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and morphological investigation; the birefringence properties were also studied in order to determine the efficiency of the acid hydrolysis treatment. Cellulose nanocrystals were successfully obtained from Posidonia oceanica leaves and they showed a monocrystalline rod-shaped acicular structure with a 5–10 nm diameter and 200–450 nm length.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296480 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Lignocellulosic nanostructures as reinforcement in extruded and solvent casted polymeric nanocomposites: an overview
EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL
Autore/i: Fortunati, Elena; Yang, Weijun; Luzi, Francesca; Kenny, Jose Maria; Torre, Luigi; Puglia, Debora
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Lignocellulosic nanostructures, mainly cellulose and lignin based materials, have recently attracted much attention due to their renewable nature, wide variety of source materials available throughout the world, low cost and density, high surface functionality and reactivity. The exceptional mechanical strength, together with high aspect ratio and large surface area, enable these nanomaterials to reinforce a wide variety of polymers even at very low filler loadings. Furthermore, nanocomposite approach has emerged in the last two decades as an efficient strategy to upgrade the structural and functional properties of natural and/or synthetic polymers. The combination of bioresorbable and sustainable polymers with bio-based nanostructures opened new perspectives in the self-assembly of nanomaterials for different applications with tuneable mechanical, thermal and degradative properties. In the present paper, the effect of introduction of lignocellulosic reinforcement phases (cellulosic and lignin based nanostructures), on structural and functional properties of several thermoplastic polymer matrices was investigated at the nanoscale level. Both solvent casting and melt compounding were considered as processing techniques for the proposed nanocomposite formulations. The role of cellulose and lignin based nanostructures, such as their synergic action when embedded in a polymer matrix, were analysed (taking into account the required functionality of the systems in the appropriate final applications) and reported in terms of morphological, optical, thermal, chemical, mechanical, barrier and degradative performance
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296521 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Poly(butylene cyclohexanedicarboxylate/diglycolate) random copolymers reinforced with SWCNTs for multifunctional conductive biopolymer composites
EXPRESS POLYMER LETTERS
Autore/i: Fortunati, Elena; Gigli, M.; Luzi, Francesca; Lotti, N.; Munari, A.; Gazzano, M.; Armentano, Ilaria; Kenny, Jose Maria
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The objective of this work was to develop a versatile strategy for preparing multifunctional composite films with tunable properties. Novel conductive composites based on the combination of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and biodegradable poly(butylene cyclohexanedicarboxylate/diglycolate) random copolymers (P(BCEmBDGn)) are here presented. In particular, synthesized PBCE homopolymer and two copolymers containing different amounts of ether–oxygen containing co-units, P(BCE90BDG10) and P(BCE70BDG30), have been considered as matrices of SWCNTs based composites. The effect of incorporation of different amounts of SWCNTs (0.1–0.5–0.75–1 wt%) on morphological, thermal, mechanical and electrical properties was deeply investigated. The morphology of the fracture surfaces is affected by the SWCNT presence, while the increase in the SWCNT content does not provide significant microstructure modifications. The thermal properties underlined that nanotubes can act as nucleating agents, favouring the polymer crystallization process. The mechanical behavior demonstrated that the introduction of carbon nanotubes both in the case of PBCE homo - polymer and in random copolymers based formulations exerted a reinforcing effect. All composites exhibit high electrical conductivity in comparison to the neat polymers. This work demonstrates that this combinatorial approach can be used to develop materials with tunable and advanced functional properties.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296514 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Revalorization of barley straw and husk as precursors for cellulose nanocrystals extraction and their effect on PVA_CH nanocomposites
INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS
Autore/i: Fortunati, Elena; Benincasa, Paolo; Balestra, G. M.; Luzi, Francesca; Mazzaglia, A.; DEL BUONO, Daniele; Puglia, Debora; Torre, Luigi
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: tPoly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended with natural chitosan (CH) was selected as matrix for the production, bysolvent casting in water, of nanocomposite films containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) extracted frombarley residues, that were introduced in PVA CH systems as reinforcement phases. Cellulose nanocrys-tals were successfully extracted from both barley straw and husk by applying two different approaches, achemical alkaline and an enzymatic pre-treatment, followed by acidic hydrolysis. The results evidencedthe major effectiveness of the enzymatic pre-treatment on the quality of obtained CNC; nevertheless,all the different typologies of nanocrystals were added to the polymers and the morphological, optical,mechanical response, thermal and migration characteristics were investigated, whereas antimicrobialassay were carried out to evaluate the bactericidal effect induced by chitosan presence. The resultsindicated that chitosan reduced the optical transparency and the mechanical response of PVA matrix,whereas its combination with CNC (especially when extracted by enzymatic treatment and added at ahigher content) was able to modulate the optical properties, the mechanical and thermal responses. More-over, inhibitions on fungal and bacterial development were detected for PVA CH CNC ternary systems,suggesting their protective function against microorganisms contamination.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296477 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
“Biomass-recovery”: nanocristalli di cellulosa da paglia e pula di orzo
XXXIII Convegno Nazionale Società Italiana di Chimica Agraria, Bologna, 16-18 Settembre 2015
Autore/i: Fortunati, Elena; DEL BUONO, Daniele; Benincasa, Paolo; Luzi, Francesca; Puglia, Debora; Torre, L; Kenny, J. M.
Editore: Atti del XXXIII Convegno Nazionale Società Italiana di Chimica Agraria, Bologna, 16-18 Settembre 2015
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296462 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
Ottimizzazione del processo di estrazione di nanocristalli di amido da farine di frumento e orzo
XXXIII Convegno Nazionale Società Italiana di Chimica Agraria
Autore/i: Fortunati, Elena; DEL BUONO, Daniele; Benincasa, Paolo; Luzi, Francesca; Puglia, Debora; Torre, L; Kenny, Jm
Editore: libro degli atti del XXXIII Convegno Nazionale Società Italiana di Chimica Agraria
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296460 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
Processing and characterization of plasticized PLA/PHB blends for biodegradable multiphase systems
EXPRESS POLYMER LETTERS
Autore/i: Armentano, Ilaria; Fortunati, Elena; Burgos, N.; Dominici, Franco; Luzi, Francesca; Fiori, S.; Jiménez, A.; Yoon, K.; Ahn, J.; Kang, S.; Kenny, Jose Maria
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) plasticized with a lactic acid oligomer (OLA) added at three different concentrations (15, 20 and 30 wt% by weight), were prepared by an optimized extrusion process to improve the processability and mechanical properties of these biopolymers for flexible film manufacturing. Morphological, chemical, thermal, mechanical, barrier and migration properties were investigated and formulations with desired performance in eco-friendly films were selected. The efficiency of OLA as plasticizer for PLA_PHB blends was demonstrated by the significant decrease of their glass transition temperatures and a considerable improvement of their ductile properties. The measured improvements in the barrier properties are related to the higher crystallinity of the plasticized PLA_PHB blends, while the overall migration test underlined that all the proposed formulations maintained migration levels below admitted levels. The PLA_PHB blend with 30 wt% OLA was selected as the optimum formulation for food packaging, since it offered the best compromise between ductility and oxygen and water vapor barrier properties with practically no migration.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296525 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
Processing of PLA nanocomposites with cellulose nanocrystals extracted from Posidonia oceanica waste: Innovative reuse of coastal plant
INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS
Autore/i: Fortunati, Elena; Luzi, Francesca; Puglia, Debora; Petrucci, Roberto; Kenny, Jose Maria; Torre, Luigi
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296470 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
Study of disintegrability in compost and enzymatic degradation of PLA and PLA nanocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals extracted from Posidonia Oceanica
POLYMER DEGRADATION AND STABILITY
Autore/i: Luzi, Francesca; Fortunati, Elena; Puglia, Debora; Petrucci, Roberto; Kenny, Jose Maria; Torre, Luigi
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Nanocomposite films based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals extracted from Posidonia Oceanica plant were prepared by solvent casting method containing 1 or 3%wt of cellulose nanocrystals unmodified (CNC) and modified using a commercial surfactant (s-CNC). The modification improves the dispersion of CNC into the matrix. Enzymatic degradation using efficient enzyme proteinase K and disintegrability in composting conditions were considered to gain insights into the post-use degradation processes of the produced formulations. Results of visual, morphological and thermal analysis of enzymatic degradation studies confirmed that the selected enzyme preferentially degraded amorphous regions with respect of crystalline ones, while the crystallinity degree of the nanocomposite films increased during enzymatic degradation, as a consequence of enzyme action. The disintegration in compositing conditions of different formulations was also investigated by means of visual and morphological analysis. The disintegrability in compost conditions showed that the formulations disintegrated in less than 14 days, in addition it has been proved that CNC modified with surfactant were able to promote the disintegration behaviour. The production of PLA based nanocomposites incorporating cellulose extract from marine wastes suggested the potential application of the proposed material for short-term food packaging with low environmental impact.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296492 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
Bio-based PLA_PHB plasticized blend films: Processing and structural characterization
LEBENSMITTEL-WISSENSCHAFT + TECHNOLOGIE
Autore/i: Armentano, Ilaria; Fortunati, Elena; Burgos, Nuria; Dominici, Franco; Luzi, Francesca; Fiori, Stefano; Jimenez, Alfonso; Yoon, Kicheol; Ahn, Jisoo; Kang, Sangmi; Kenny, Jose Maria
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Bio-based films formed by poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) plasticized with an oligomer of the lactic acid (OLA) were used as supporting matrices for an antibacterial agent (carvacrol). This paper reports the main features of the processing and physico-chemical characterization of these innovative biodegradable material based films, which were extruded and further submitted to filmature process. The effect of the addition of carvacrol and OLA on their microstructure, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties was assessed. The presence of these additives did not affect the thermal stability of PLA_PHB films, but resulted in a decrease in their crystallinity and in the elastic modulus for the active formulations. The obtained results showed the effective presence of additives in the PLA or the PLA_PHB matrix after processing at high temperatures, making them able to be used in active and bio-based formulations with antioxidant/antimicrobial performance.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/296511 Collegamento a IRIS




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