Chiara GIOSUE'

Pubblicazioni

Chiara GIOSUE'

 

88 pubblicazioni classificate nel seguente modo:

Nr. doc. Classificazioni
56 1 Contributo su Rivista
24 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
6 2 Contributo in Volume
1 6 Brevetti
1 8 Tesi di dottorato
Anno
Risorse
2024
An Overview of the Sustainable Recycling Processes Used for Lithium-Ion Batteries
BATTERIES
Autore/i: Marchese, Daniele; Giosue, Chiara; Staffolani, Antunes; Conti, Massimo; Orcioni, Simone; Soavi, Francesca; Cavalletti, Matteo; Stipa, Pierluigi
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: fLithium-ion batteries (LIBs) can play a crucial role in the decarbonization process that is being tackled worldwide; millions of electric vehicles are already provided with or are directly powered by LIBs, and a large number of them will flood the markets within the next 8–10 years. Proper disposal strategies are required, and sustainable and environmental impacts need to be considered. Despite still finding little applicability in the industrial field, recycling could become one of the most sustainable options to handle the end of life of LIBs. This review reports on the most recent advances in sustainable processing for spent LIB recycling that is needed to improve the LIB value chain, with a special focus on green leaching technologies for Co-based cathodes. Specifically, we provide the main state of the art for sustainable LIB recycling processes, focusing on the pretreatment of spent LIBs; we report on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies on the usage of acids, including mineral as well as organic ones; and summarize the recent innovation for the green recovery of valuable metals from spent LIBs, including electrochemical methods. The advantage of using green leaching agents, such as organic acids, which represent a valuable option towards more sustainable recycling processes, is also discussed. Organic acids can, indeed, reduce the economic, chemical, and environmental impacts of LIBs since post-treatments are avoided. Furthermore, existing challenges are identified herein, and suggestions for improving the effectiveness of recycling are defined.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/326161 Collegamento a IRIS

2024
Development of activated carbons derived from wastes: coffee grounds and olive stones as potential porous materials for air depollution
SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
Autore/i: Czerwinska, Natalia; Giosue', Chiara; Matos, Ines; Sabbatini, Simona; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Bernardo, Maria
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Agro-industrial byproducts and food waste necessitate an environmentally friendly way of reducing issues related to their disposal; it is also necessary to recover as much new raw material from these resources as possible, especially when we consider their potential usage as a precursor for preparing depolluting materials, such as activated carbon. In this work, coffee grounds and olive stones were chosen as precursors and the adsorption capacity of the obtained porous carbons for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was studied. Microporous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared using chemical (K2CO3) and physical (CO2) activation. The influence of the activation process, type, and time of activation was also investigated. Measurements of VOCs adsorption were performed, and methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK) and toluene were chosen as the model pollutants. The surface areas and total pore volumes of 1487 m2/g and 0.53 cm3/g and 870 m2/g and 0.22 cm3/g for coffee ground carbons and olive stone carbons, respectively, were obtained via chemical activation, whereas physical activation yielded values of 716 m2/g and 0.184 cm3/g and 778 cm2 g-1 and 0.205 cm3/g, respectively. As expected, carbons without activation (biochars) showed the smallest surface area, equal to 331 m2/g and 251 m2/g, and, hence, the lowest adsorption capacity. The highest adsorption capacity of MEK (3210 mg/g) and toluene (2618 mg/g) was recorded for chemically activated coffee grounds. Additionally, from the CO2 isotherms recorded at a low pressure (0.03 bar) and 0 °C, the maximum CO2 adsorption capacity was equal to 253 mg/g.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/328331 Collegamento a IRIS

2023
Introducing an Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Methodology based on Volterra Filters
2023 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS)
Autore/i: Orcioni, Simone; Carini, Alberto; Mauri, Alessandro; Giosue', Chiara; Marchese, Daniele; Conti, Massimo
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: The paper proposes a novel Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy methodology that takes into account the nonlinearties present in the battery. For this purpose, the current-voltage relationship of the cell is modeled in discrete domain as a Volterra filter and the linear part of the nonlinear model is efficiently estimated using Orthogonal Periodic Sequences. Preliminary experimental results involving six lithium-ion cells show the soundness of the proposed approach also in comparison with the classical method.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/319771 Collegamento a IRIS

2023
New Materials and Technologies for Durability and Conservation of Building Heritage
MATERIALS
Autore/i: Coppola, Luigi; Bellezze, Tiziano; Belli, Alberto; Bianco, Alessandra; Blasi, Elisa; Cappello, Miriam; Caputo, Domenico; Chougan, Mehdi; Coffetti, Denny; Coppola, Bartolomeo; Corinaldesi, Valeria; D’Amore, Alberto; Daniele, Valeria; Di Maio, Luciano; Di Palma, Luca; Donnini, Jacopo; Ferrara, Giuseppe; Filippi, Sara; Gastaldi, Matteo; Generosi, Nicola; Giosuè, Chiara; Incarnato, Loredana; Lamastra, Francesca; Liguori, Barbara; Macera, Ludovico; Maqbool, Qaisar; Cristina Mascolo, Maria; Mavilia, Letterio; Mazzoli, Alida; Medici, Franco; Mobili, Alessandra; Montesperelli, Giampiero; Pia, Giorgio; Redaelli, Elena; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Scarfato, Paola; Taglieri, Giuliana; Tittarelli, Francesca; Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Valenza, Antonino
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The increase in concrete structures’ durability is a milestone to improve the sustainability of buildings and infrastructures. In order to ensure a prolonged service life, it is necessary to detect the deterioration of materials by means of monitoring systems aimed at evaluating not only the penetration of aggressive substances into concrete but also the corrosion of carbon-steel reinforcement. Therefore, proper data collection makes it possible to plan suitable restoration works which can be carried out with traditional or innovative techniques and materials. This work focuses on building heritage and it highlights the most recent findings for the conservation and restoration of reinforced concrete structures and masonry buildings.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/311867 Collegamento a IRIS

2023
Rehabilitation project of Quang Tri Old Citadel in Vietnam: integrated analytical approach from material characterization to architectural heritage valorization
JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Autore/i: Carlorosi, Cecilia; Giosue, Chiara; Anh Le Ngoc, Van; Mobili, Alessandra; Pugnaloni, Fausto; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This paper presents the outcomes of the international project “Protecting Landscape Heritage: a requalification project as an instrument for the re-birth of Quang Tri Old Citadel in Vietnam”, achieved with scientific cooperation between the Universita Politecnica delle Marche (Italy) and Hue University of Sciences (Vietnam) funded by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation and Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam. The research focuses on the Quang Tri Citadel, founded in 1809 and now in an advanced state of degradation.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/292810 Collegamento a IRIS

2023
Properties of an innovative multi-functional finish for the improvement of indoor air quality
BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Pierpaoli, Mattia; DI PERNA, Costanzo; Citterio, Barbara; Mangiaterra, Gianmarco; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Due to lifestyle changes, people spend most of their time indoors at present; thus, Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is a matter of utmost importance. Multi-functional and innovative finishes can help to passively improve the IAQ, benefitting the health and comfort of occupants. For this study, reference and pre-mixed commercial mortars are compared to a new multi-functional hydraulic lime mortar for indoor finishes, in which conventional aggregates are substituted by a highly porous adsorbent material and biomass waste ashes. The up to 20% higher accessible porosity of the multi-functional finish led to lower density (30%), higher thermal insulation properties (30%), higher water vapor permeability (more than 40%), and improved moisture buffering capacity (three times higher), when compared to the reference mortar. Different types of photocatalytic agents (TiO2) were also added into the new multi-functional hydraulic lime mortar, in order to investigate their effect on the de-polluting properties of the finish. Even if the photocatalytic efficiency remained unexpressed under indoor conditions, due to the predominance of the adsorption process, the de-polluting properties of the new mix were more than 30% higher than that of the reference mortar. The obtained results confirm that the developed innovative multifunctional finish—besides fulfilling the ordinary requirements—is better than commercial mortars, as it can improve the IAQ passively, thus benefitting the health and comfort of occupants.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/311868 Collegamento a IRIS

2022
A novel hierarchically-porous diamondized polyacrylonitrile sponge-like electrodes for acetaminophen electrochemical detection
ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA
Autore/i: Pierpaoli, Mattia; Jakóbczyk, Pawel; Dec, Bartłomiej; Giosue, Chiara; Czerwinska, Natalia; Lewkowicz, Aneta; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Bogdanowicz, Robert
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: A novel composite electrode material consisting of tangled fibrous polyacrylonitrile-based hierarchically-structured nanocomposites has been produced by wet-spinning, carbonized and decorated with a carbon nanoarchitecture by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and investigated as a metal-free electrode for the enhanced electrochemical detection of acetaminophen. Surprisingly, the hierarchical fiber architecture is the result of the synergistic action between surface etching, by the H2 plasma, and nanostructure formation, by the C- and CH- radicals, which significantly affect the porosity and electrochemical performance. Moreover, by simultaneously conducting fiber carbonization and surface functionalization, it is possible to dramatically reduce the manufacturing time and to confer an 18-fold increase of the acetaminophen detection sensitivity, due to the sp2-C defect-rich overgrown nanostructure, which represents a preferable site for the drug adsorption, as supported by the molecular dynamics simulation results. Because of the excellent performance, and the simple and scalable production method, the prepared composite is a promising candidate as a metal-free electrochemical sensor.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/305921 Collegamento a IRIS

2022
New waste-derived TiO2 nanoparticles as a potential photocatalytic additive for lime based indoor finishings
JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION
Autore/i: Maqbool, Qaisar; Czerwinska, Natalia; Giosue', Chiara; Sabbatini, Simona; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Production of sustainable nanomaterials (NMs) through the valorization of heterogeneous wastes is of high importance due to escalating environmental sustainability and depletion of natural resources. Following this motive, in this paper, TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were green-synthesized (GS) using metal ions reducing potential of secondary metabolites from organic waste (i.e., autumn leaves). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Xray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that GS TiO2-NPs as pure anatase for crystalline fraction, with homogenous granulometry ranging between 12 and 26 nm in size, and crystallite size as small as 3.85 (±0.02) nm are achieved. The effect of carbon-content (modifier) on the structural and surface chemistry of tested TiO2-NPs were deeply investigated through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetry analysis (TG/DTG/DTA). The GS TiO2-NPs have shown photocatalytic (NO)x degradation of around 30% and 18% under UV and visible-light respectively, 10% and 70% higher than that of two commercial TiO2-NPs, P-25 and KRONOS-7404, respectively. Based on the leading performance, GS TiO2-NPs were further tested as an additive to an indoor hydraulic-lime based finishing material to augment its photocatalytic properties. Interestingly, GS TiO2-NPs were able to maintain (NO)x photodegradation (≈11%) performance even at an extremely small concentration of <2 wt%. Hence, waste-mediated production of ecofriendly GS TiO2-NPs introduced in this study will help for next-generation photocatalytic indoor finishing materials.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/305843 Collegamento a IRIS

2022
Soil fertility in slash and burn agricultural systems in central Mozambique
JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Autore/i: Serrani, Dominique; Cocco, Stefania; Cardelli, Valeria; D’Ottavio, Paride; Rafael, ROGERIO BORGUETE ALVES; Feniasse, Domingos; Vilanculos, Alcídio; Luisa Fernandez-Marcos, Maria; Giosue, Chiara; Tittarelli, Francesca; Corti, Giuseppe
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Slash and burn is a land use practice widespread all over the world, and nowadays it is formally recognized as the principal livelihood system in rural areas of South America, Asia, and Africa. The practice consists of a land rotation where users cut native or secondary forest to establish a new crop field and, in some cases, build charcoal kilns with the cut wood to produce charcoal. Due to several socio-economic changes in developing countries, some scientists and international organizations have questioned the sustainability of slash and burn since in some cases, crop yield does not justify the soil degradation caused. To estimate the soil quality in agricultural and forest soils at different ages of the forest-fallow period (25, 35, and 50 years), this survey investigated rural areas in three locations in Manica province, central Mozambique: Vanduzi, Sussundenga, and Macate. Soil profiles were trenched and sampled with a pedological approach under crop fields and forest-fallow. The chronosequence was selected to test the hypothesis that the increase in forest-fallow age causes an improvement of soil fertility. Results highlighted discrete variations among locations in mineralogy, Al- and Feoxyhydroxides, sand, silt, pH, total organic carbon, humic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, chloride, nitrate, fluoride, and ammonium. Few differences in mineralogy, Fe-oxyhydroxides, available P, chloride, and nitrate were detected between crop fields and forest-fallow within the same location. Such differences were mostly ascribed to intrinsic fertility inherited from the parent material rather than a longer forest-fallow period. However, physicochemical soil property improvement did not occur under a forest age of 50 years (the longest forest-fallow considered), indicating that harmonization of intrinsic fertility and agronomic practices may increase soil organic matter and nutrient contents more than a long forest-fallow period.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/305842 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Characterization and Filtration Efficiency of Sustainable PLA Fibers Obtained via a Hybrid 3D-Printed/Electrospinning Technique
MATERIALS
Autore/i: Pierpaoli, Mattia; Giosue', Chiara; Czerwinska, Natalia; Rycewicz, Michal; Wieloszynska, Aleksandra; Bogdanowicz, Robert; Ruello, Maria Letizia
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The enormous world demand for personal protective equipment to face the current SARSCoV- 2 epidemic has revealed two main weaknesses. On one hand, centralized production led to an initial shortage of respirators; on the other hand, the world demand for single-use equipment has had a direct and inevitable effect on the environment. Polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable, biocompatible, and renewable thermoplastic polyester, mainly derived from corn starch. Electrospinning is an established and reproducible method to obtain nano- and microfibrous materials with a simple apparatus, characterized by high air filtration efficiencies. In the present work, we designed and optimized an open-source electrospinning setup, easily realizable with a 3D printer and using components widely available, for the delocalized production of an efficient and sustainable particulate matter filter. Filters were realized on 3D-printed PLA support, on which PLA fibers were subsequently electrospun. NaCl aerosol filtration tests exhibited an efficiency greater than 95% for aerosol having an equivalent diameter greater than 0.3  m and a fiber diameter comparable to the commercially available FFP2 melt-blown face mask. The particulate entrapped by the filters when operating in real environments (indoors, outdoors, and working scenario) was also investigated, as well as the amount of heavy metals potentially released into the environment after filtration activity.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/293048 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Mechanical, durability, depolluting and electrical properties of multifunctional mortars prepared with commercial or waste carbon-based fillers
CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Belli, Alberto; Giosue', Chiara; Pierpaoli, Mattia; Bastianelli, Luca; Mazzoli, Alida; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Carbon-based fillers from industrial wastes and commercial ones were compared to improve the properties of lime-based mixes. As commercial fillers, graphene nanoplatelets and activated carbon were used, whereas as industrial wastes a char obtained by the gasification of biomasses and a used foundry sand were chosen. Carbon-based wastes were found to be a good cost-effective alternative to commercial carbon based fillers to increase the compressive strength (of about 25%) and to reduce water capillary absorption (of about 50%) thanks to the paste refinement; to enhance depollution capacity (of about 25%) and increase both electrical conductivity (up to 65%) and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (of about 6%) of the hardened compounds thanks to the carbon content.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/288423 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Cellulosic materials recovery from municipal wastewater: from treatment plants to the market
Clean Energy and Resource Recovery: waste water treatments plants as biorefineries
Autore/i: Akyol, Cagri; Eusebi, Anna Laura; Cipolletta, Giulia; Bruni, Cecilia; Foglia, Alessia; Giosue', Chiara; Frison, Nicola; Tittarelli, Francesca; Canestrari, Francesco; Fatone, Francesco
Editore: Elsevier
Luogo di pubblicazione: Amserdam
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: IntroductionCellulose is the most abundant available biopolymer (up to 1011 t/annum production) with a high molecular weight (Kumar et al., 2020 ). Cellulose is a long linear polysaccharide polymer consisting of β-1,4-linked glucose units (C5H8O4)m, and exhibits in structural cell wall tissues of all higher plans and some algae, while some bacteria also excrete cellulose. Considering the increasing demand for lignocellulosic raw materials in a huge number of industries, undervalued side streams with a high potential should be well utilized in order to embrace a more circular economy approach that reduces waste and allows for the continual use and re-use of resources (Keijsers et al., 2013; Puyol et al., 2017). For thousands of years, mankind process cellulose derived from plants in the production of pulp, paper, and derivatives. With the adoption of toilet paper in modern societies, cellulose fibers became a primary insoluble substrate entering wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In the last decade, cellulose recovery from wastewater has become a topic of interest which has attracted a remarkable attention leading to considerable investments (Palmieri et al., 2019; Ruiken et al., 2013). By introducing a microsieving (mesh size <350 μm) downstream of the coarse sieving, it is possible to recover the cellulose from cellulosic primary sludge (CPS; Gherghel et al., 2019). In a wastewater treatment scheme, sieving is a mechanical method often used to remove solid particles. A significant part of the sieved material includes cellulosic fibers (approx. 30–50%), which mainly originates from toilet papers (Espíndola et al., 2021) together with a minor contribution of clothes, fruits, and vegetables. This is a very significant amount since approximately 10 kg toilet paper is used on average per person each year. This number varies greatly, and it is location dependent. For instance, the average toilet paper use in the United States is 22.68 kg/capita year, which translates into more than 2 × 104 ton of toilet paper entering WWTPs daily, assuming that at least 90% of toilet paper is flushed after use. Meanwhile, although the annual consumption of toilet paper per capita is considerably lower in China (i.e., 2.9 kg/capita year), the total amount of toilet paper entering WWTPs is also significant because of its vast number of consumers (Li et al., 2020). Recovering and further adding value to these cellulosic fibers can easily contribute to the sustainability of wastewater treatment processes with the possibility of generating new eco-efficient products while requiring less energy and cost for water reclamation (Mussatto and Loosdrecht, 2016). Then, recovered cellulose can be processed into various value added molecules, building bioblocks, bioplastics, and flocculants (Glińska et al., 2020).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/294041 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
Gasification Char and Used Foundry Sand as Alternative Fillers to Graphene Nanoplatelets for Electrically Conductive Mortars with and without Virgin/Recycled Carbon Fibres
APPLIED SCIENCES
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Giosue', Chiara; Bellezze, Tiziano; Revel, Gian Marco; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Structural health monitoring to assess the safety, durability and performance of structures can be performed by non-destructive methods such as the measurement of impedance in self-sensing cement-based elements. Cement-based materials, like mortars and concretes, generally have high electrical resistivity but the addition of carbon-based fillers and fibres decreases their electrical resistivity and thus enhances their self-sensing capabilities. In this study, two waste carbon-based fillers, namely, used foundry sand and gasification char were compared to commercial graphene nanoplatelets and used to produce self-sensing cement mortars, both with and without recycled or virgin carbon fibres. The mortars were tested in terms of their mechanical and electrical properties as well as their propensity to capillary water absorption. The results demonstrate that gasification char alone is the best carbonaceous waste for decreasing the electrical resistivity (-42%) and water absorption (-17%) of mortars, while their compressive strength remains unaltered. Moreover, although there is a slight reduction in compressive strength and an increase in water suction when gasification char is coupled with fibres, the combination of fillers and fibres has a synergistic effect in decreasing mortars’ electrical resistivity, especially when recycled carbon fibres are used (-80%).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/286345 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
An exploratory study of the policies and legislative perspectives on the end-of-life of lithium-ion batteries from the perspective of producer obligation
SUSTAINABILITY
Autore/i: Giosuè, Chiara; Marchese, D.; Cavalletti, M.; Isidori, R.; Conti, M.; Orcioni, S.; Ruello, M. L.; Stipa, P.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: European self-sufficiency in the battery sector is one of the major EU needs. The key lithiumion batteries (LIBs) materials demand is expected to increase in the next decade as a consequence of the increment in the LIBs production and a massive amount of spent LIBs will flood global markets. Hence, these waste streams would be a potential source of secondary raw materials to be valorized, under the principle of circular economy. European governments first, and then companies in the battery sector second, are addressing many efforts in improving legislation on batteries and accumulators. This study explores the current legislative aspects, the main perspective from the producer’s point of view, and the possibility to guarantee a proper recycle of spent LIBs. A monitoring proposal by means of a survey has been carried out and the Italian context, which has been taken as an example of the European context, and it was used to evaluate the practical implication of the current legislation. The main result of the survey is that a specific identification as well as regulations for LIBs are needed. The benefit from a cradle-to-cradle circular economy is still far from the actual situation but several industrial examples and ongoing European projects show the importance and feasibility of the reuse (e.g., second life) and recycle of LIBs.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/292811 Collegamento a IRIS

2021
The Critical Raw Materials Issue between Scarcity, Supply Risk, and Unique Properties
MATERIALS
Autore/i: Girtan, Mihaela; Wittenberg, Antje; Luisa Grilli, Maria; S de Oliveira, Daniel P; Giosue', Chiara; Ruello, Maria Letizia
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This editorial reports on a thorough analysis of the abundance and scarcity distribution of chemical elements and the minerals they form in the Earth, Sun, and Universe in connection with their number of neutrons and binding energy per nucleon. On one hand, understanding the elements’ formation and their specific properties related to their electronic and nucleonic structure may lead to understanding whether future solutions to replace certain elements or materials for specific technical applications are realistic. On the other hand, finding solutions to the critical availability of some of these elements is an urgent need. Even the analysis of the availability of scarce minerals from European Union sources leads to the suggestion that a wide-ranging approach is essential. These two fundamental assumptions represent also the logical approach that led the European Commission to ask for a multi-disciplinary effort from the scientific community to tackle the challenge of Critical Raw Materials. This editorial is also the story of one of the first fulcrum around which a wide network of material scientists gathered thanks to the support of the funding organization for research and innovation networks, COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/298196 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Innovative hydraulic lime-based finishes with unconventional aggregates and TiO2 for the improvement of indoor air quality
MANUFACTURING REVIEW
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra; Citterio, Barbara; Biavasco, Francesca; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/276217 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Comportamento a corrosione di armature in acciaio e acciaio zincato in una malta ad attivazione alcalina a base di metacaolino dopo carbonatazione accelerata
LA METALLURGIA ITALIANA
Autore/i: Mobili, A.; Giosuè, C.; Bellezze, T.; Tittarelli, F.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Il lavoro presenta il comportamento a corrosione di armature in acciaio e acciaio zincato immerse in malte ad attivazione alcalina a base di metacaolino e malte tradizionali cementizie appartenenti alla stessa classe di resistenza meccanica (classe R3 con Rc ≥ 25 MPa, secondo la UNI EN 1504-3). I test sono stati effettuati valutando il potenziale di libera corrosione e la resistenza alla polarizzazione durante il primo mese di stagionatura e durante i successivi cicli settimanali di bagnasciuga in acqua dopo esposizione in camera al 3% di CO2. Durante la stagionatura, l’elevato pH della malta in metacaolino rallenta il raggiungimento dello stato passivo delle armature zincate che, successivamente, raggiungono resistenze di polarizzazione paragonabili alle barre immerse nella malta cementizia. Durante carbonatazione accelerata, il pH della malta in metacaolino si abbassa più velocemente di quello della malta cementizia. Durante i cicli di bagnasciuga, entrambe le tipologie di armatura mostrano simili resistenze alla polarizzazione in entrambe le matrici studiate.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/280364 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
The impact of bitumen roofing production waste (BTw) on cement mortar properties
CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
Autore/i: Malaiskiene, J.; Vaiciene, M.; Giosue, C.; Tittarelli, F.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This paper is aimed to show the impact of bitumen roofing production waste (BTw) on the properties of cement mortars in terms of mineral composition, microstructure, setting rate, physical and mechanical properties and durability (water absorption, freeze-thaw resistance). To this aim, mortar specimens were manufactured by replacing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of natural sand by weight with BTw. The main results show that BTw slightly accelerates cement hydration and 4% is the best content of BTw to be valorised in mortars. In this case, compressive strength, density and ultrasound pulse velocity are comparable to the control mortar (0% BTw content) but capillary water absorption decreases and flexural strength increases. Moreover, at this dosage, the forecasted freeze-thaw resistance of mortars increases considerably (~30%).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/272038 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Durability Assessment of Recycled Aggregate HVFA Concrete
APPLIED SCIENCES
Autore/i: Corinaldesi, Valeria; Donnini, Jacopo; Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The possibility of producing high-volume fly ash (HVFA) recycled aggregate concrete represents an important step towards the development of sustainable building materials. In fact, there is a growing need to reduce the use of non-renewable natural resources and, at the same time, to valorize industrial by-products, such as fly ash, that would otherwise be sent to the landfill. The present experimental work investigates the physical and mechanical properties of concrete by replacing natural aggregates and cement with recycled aggregates and fly ash, respectively. First, the mechanical properties of four dierent mixtures have been analyzed and compared. Then, the eectiveness of recycled aggregate and fly ash on reducing carbonation and chloride penetration depth has been also evaluated. Finally, the corrosion behavior of the dierent concrete mixtures, reinforced with either bare or galvanized steel plates, has been evaluated. The results obtained show that high-volume fly ash (HVFA) recycled aggregate concrete can be produced without significative reduction in mechanical properties. Furthermore, the addition of high-volume fly ash and the total replacement of natural aggregates with recycled ones did not modify the corrosion behavior of embedded bare and galvanized steel reinforcement.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/283988 Collegamento a IRIS

2020
Multifunctional Lightweight Mortars for Indoor Applications to Improve Comfort and Health of Occupants: Thermal Properties and Photocatalytic Efficiency
FRONTIERS IN MATERIALS
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Pierpaoli, Mattia; Mobili, Alessandra; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: A new generation of smart building materials, able to passively improve the indoor environment and the comfort of occupants owing to their interaction with the surrounding environment, can be addressed. This paper investigates the use of three highly porous aggregates to manufacture hydraulic lime-based multifunctional mortars to be used as indoor finishes. The same water/binder ratio was used for each mortar mix, and conventional calcareous sand was totally replaced by volume with zeolite, silica gel, and activated carbon. Nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) was added to award a photocatalytic behavior under UV radiation to the mortars. Results show that, as expected, when highly porous aggregates are used, mortars absorb more water by capillary suction. However, even though the mortars manufactured with lightweight aggregates have a lower density, the mechanical behavior of zeolite and activated carbon mortars is comparable or even higher than that of sand mortars, thanks to an optimum interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the binder paste and the aggregate. The photocatalytic activity, in terms of photocatalytic NOx degradation efficiency and selectivity of unwanted produced NO2, results to be optimal when silica gel-based mortar is tested. Additionally, the thermal-insulation properties are enhanced up to 40% by using all the unconventional aggregates.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/283721 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Comportamento a corrosione di armature in acciaio e acciaio zincato in una malta ad attivazione alcalina a base di metacaolino dopo carbonatazione accelerata
Atti della XIII edizione delle Giornate Nazionali sulla Corrosione e Protezione
Autore/i: Mobili, A.; Giosuè, C.; Bellezze, T.; Tittarelli, F.
Editore: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: The work presents the corrosion behavior of bare and galvanized steel rebars embedded in metakaolin alkali-activated mortar and traditional cement-based mortar belonging to the same mechanical strength class (R3 class with Rc ≥ 25 MPa, according to UNI EN 1504-3). Tests were conducted evaluating both the corrosion potential and the polarization resistance throughout the first month of curing and during the subsequent weekly wet/dry cycles in tap water after exposure to a chamber with 3% of CO2. During the first month, the high alkalinity of alkali-activated mortar delays the achievement of the passive state in particular for galvanized steel rebars, even though, after that period, they reach the same polarization resistance of those embedded in the cement-based mortar. During accelerated carbonation, the neutralization of alkalinity in alkali-activated mortar occurs more quickly than in cement-based mortar. During exposure to wet/dry cycles in tap water, both bare and galvanized steel rebars show comparable polarization resistance values in both studied mortars.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/271226 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
The effect of peat and wood fly ash on the porosity of mortar
CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
Autore/i: Rissanen, Jouni; Giosué, Chiara; Ohenoja, Katja; Kinnunen, Paivo; Marcellini, Mirco; Letizia Ruello, Maria; Tittarelli, Francesca; Illikainen, Mirja
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Fluidized bed combustion fly ash (FBCFA), notably different from regular (coal) fly ash, is a promising industrial side stream to be used as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM). Peat and wood are important sources of biomass for energy production in Nordic countries and generate formidable amounts of un-used ash yearly. Two FBCFAs from the co-combustion of peat and wood, fly ash from coal combustion, and limestone filler were used to replace 10 wt%, 20 wt%, and 40 wt% of cement in mortar specimens. The compressive strength, porosity, water absorption, water vapor permeability, and drying shrinkage of the mortars were measured and compared. It was found that in almost all properties FBCFAs outperformed un-reactive limestone filler. Compared to coal fly ash, FBCFAs produced mortars with comparable compressive strength although with higher porosity, water absorption, and water vapor permeability.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/267658 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
CELLULOSE RECOVERY FROM WASTEWATER: PERFORMANCES ASSESSMENT AND POSSIBLE IMPLEMENTATION IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
XV CONVEGNO NAZIONALE AIMAT XII CONVEGNO INSTM SULLA SCIENZA E TECNOLOGIA DEI MATERIALI
Autore/i: Palmieri, Silvia; Cipolletta, G; Pastore, C; Giosuè, C; Eusebi, Al; Frison, N; Tittarelli, F; Fatone, F
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/269309 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Toilet paper recovery from municipal wastewater and application in building sector
IOP CONFERENCE SERIES. EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Autore/i: Cipolletta, G; L Eusebi, A; Palmieri, S; Giosuè, C; Tittarelli, F; Frison, N; Pastore, C; Foglia, A; Fatone, F
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: One of the most innovative applications for a circular economy approach is the recovery of cellulose fibres from municipal wastewater. Recovered cellulose fibres from the wastewater could bring benefits to the construction industry in terms of reducing the amount of non-renewable raw materials and increasing sustainability. Rotating belt filter was used to obtain cellulose fibre-rich sludge from real urban influent. Recovered cellulosic material reached values up to 26.59 g m-3 when the solids removal efficiency was higher than 70%. Treated cellulosic sludge had an average of 87% content of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The recovered cellulose fibres were analysed and used in mortar mix to understand their possible impact in the building sector and the effect on the properties of hydraulic lime-based mortars. Properties of fibre addition were investigated in terms of microstructure and mechanical strength. Cellulose fibres were added by mix volume up to 20%. The overall results with the maximum content of cellulose fibres indicated the improvement of mortars performance in terms of increased lightness, flexural strength and hygrometric properties.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/269257 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
End-of-life liquid crystal display recovery: Toward a zero-waste approach
APPLIED SCIENCES
Autore/i: Amato, A.; Becci, A.; Mariani, P.; Carducci, F.; Ruello, M. L.; Monosi, S.; Giosuè, C.; Beolchini, F.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: End-of-life liquid crystal displays (LCD) represent a possible source of secondary raw materials, mainly glass and an optoelectronic film composed of indium (90%) and tin (10%) oxides. A strong interest for indium, classified as critical raw material, pushed research towards the development of high-efficiency recycling processes. Nevertheless, a deepened study of the technological innovation highlighted that only a small number of treatments included use of whole waste. Furthermore, these processes often need high temperatures, long times, and raw materials that have a significant environmental impact. In this context, this article shows an approach developed in accordance with the "zero waste" principles for whole, end-of-life LCD panel recycling. This process includes preliminary grinding, followed by cross-current acid leaching and indium recovery by zinc cementation, with efficiencies greater than 90%. A recirculation system further increases sustainability of the process. To enhance all waste fractions, glass cullets from leaching are used for concrete production, avoiding their disposal in landfill sites. Considering the achieved efficiencies, combined the simple design suitable for real-scale application (as confirmed by the related patent pending), this process represents an excellent example of implementing circular economy pillars
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/269446 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Performance of lightweight cement-based and alkali-activated mortars exposed to high-temperature
CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra; DI PERNA, Costanzo; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The behavior of lightweight cement-based and alkali-activated mortars after exposure to temperatures of 500, 750, and 1000 C was compared. In cement-based mortars, cement was partially replaced (40 vol%) by several refractory fillers (coal fly-ash, biomass fly-ash, cocciopesto, metakaolin). In alkali-activated mortars, metakaolin was partially substituted (0, 25, 50 wt%) by coal fly-ash. The substitution of cement by 40% metakaolin and the substitution of metakaolin by 50% fly ash enhances the resistance to high temperatures of cement-based and alkali-activated mortars, respectively. After exposure to 1000 C, the high residual compressive strength of cement-based mortars with metakaolin is due to the formation of new crystalline species, whereas in alkali-activated mortars is due to their high densification.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/267324 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Behavior of Cement-Based Alkali-Activated Lightweight Mortars at High Temperatures
5th Workshop on The New Boundaries of Structural Concrete 2019
Autore/i: Giosuè, C.; Mobili, A.; Tittarelli, F.
Editore: IMREADY Srl
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Six lightweight cement-based or alkali-activated mortars are investigated after being exposed to 500, 750, and 1000 °C. In the three cement-based mortars, the binder is Portland cement, with/without fly ash or metakaolin, while in the remaining three alkali-activated mortars (all devoid of Portland cement), different combinations of fly ash and metakaolin are investigated. Replacing 40% of the cement with metakaolin and replacing 50% of metakaolin with coal fly ash enhance the resistance to high temperatures of the mortars. After the exposure to 1000 °C, the high residual compressive strength of cement-based mortars containing metakaolin comes from the formation of new crystalline phases, whereas in alkali-activated mortars the high residual compressive strength comes from their high densification.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/269948 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
HIGH-TEMPERATURE PERFORMANCE OF CEMENTITIOUS AND ALKALI ACTIVATED LIGHTWEIGHT MORTARS
XV CONVEGNO NAZIONALE AIMAT XII CONVEGNO INSTM SULLA SCIENZA E TECNOLOGIA DEI MATERIALI
Autore/i: Giosuè, C.; Mobili, A.; Tittarelli, F.
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/269308 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Sustainability in Construction Materials: From Waste Valorization to Circular Economy
The First Outstanding 50 Years of “Università Politecnica delle Marche”
Autore/i: Ruello, Maria Letizia; Bellezze, Tiziano; Corinaldesi, Valeria; Donnini, Jacopo; Eusebi, Anna Laura; Fatone, Francesco; Fava, Gabriele; Favoni, Orlando; Fratesi, Romeo; Giosue', Chiara; Giuliani, Giampaolo; Marcellini, Mirco; Mazzoli, Alida; Mobili, Alessandra; Roventi, Gabriella; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: Springer
Luogo di pubblicazione: Cham
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Already from the beginning, 50 years ago, the first nucleus of researchers establishing the research group, was convinced that the construction sector was the best option for the valorization of industrial by-products as “secondary raw materials”. In fact, this sector is probably the largest consumer of resources and the largest waste generator, consequently it has huge environmental impact. On the other hand, construction materials affect the performance of buildings with respect to safety, health, environmental performance and energy efficiency. Manufacturing of construction products using alternative raw materials; recycling to manage construction and demolition waste; durability and environmental compatibility of materials: all these were the different and challenging fields of research that the group has faced in a continuous effort of innovation and cooperation at national and international level. The focus of the group was already perfectly in line with what is now called “Circular Economy”, which at present is considered a revolution in the way of human economic development. We are sure the group thus contributed to this revolution even before the term was in current use. We feel ready for the next 50.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/272692 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Microstructural Analysis and Strength Development of One-Part Alkali-Activated Slag/Ceramic Binders Under Different Curing Regimes
WASTE AND BIOMASS VALORIZATION
Autore/i: Abdollahnejad, Z.; Luukkonen, T.; Mastali, M.; Giosue, C.; Favoni, O.; Ruello, M. L.; Kinnunen, P.; Illikainen, M.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Alkali-activated binders have shown great potential in the reuse of industrial waste materials and have therefore received significant attention. The use of one-part or a “just-add-water” alkali-activated binder aims to avoid the use of alkali-activator solutions which have traditionally been utilized in two-part systems. By using a solid activator, the disadvantages posed by hazardous liquid activators (such as the difficulties of using them on-site) can be minimized. Ceramic materials represent a considerable fraction of construction and demolition wastes, and originate not only from the building process, but also as tiles from industry and rejected bricks. Besides using these waste materials as road sub-base or construction backfill materi- als, they can also be employed as supplementary cementitious materials or even as raw material for alkali-activated binders. This paper presents the strength development and microstructural results obtained from examining different compositions under various curing conditions (sealing, ambient, and submerged in water). Two different ceramic wastes (with and without firing) were used as a partial replacement (5–10% by mass) of ground granulated blast-furnace slag. Specimens were then cured under three different curing regimes, including: (1) plastic-sealed, (2) unsealed at ambient conditions with an aver- age temperature of 23 °C and 35% RH, and (3) submerged in water until the test date. Mechanical testing (compressive and flexural strengths) and microstructural analysis (SEM/EDX, XRD, MIP, heat of hydration, TGA, and DTA) were used to determine the effects of curing conditions. The results showed that ceramic waste content and type, as well as curing regimes, greatly affect the chemical reaction products, strength development, and structural stability.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/264125 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Pilot scale cellulose recovery from sewage sludge and reuse in building and construction material
WASTE MANAGEMENT
Autore/i: Palmieri, Silvia; Cipolletta, Giulia; Pastore, Carlo; Giosue', Chiara; Akyol, Cagri; Eusebi, Anna Laura; Frison, Nicola; Tittarelli, Francesca; Fatone, Francesco
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The recovery of cellulose in toilet paper from municipal wastewater is one of the most innovative actions in the circular economy context. In fact, fibres could address possible new uses in the building sector as reinforcing components in binder-based materials. In this paper, rotating belt filters were tested to enhance the recovery of sludge rich in cellulose fibres for possible valorisation in construction applications. Recovered cellulosic material reached value up to 26.6 gm3 with maximum solids removal of 74%. Content of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin was found averagely equal to 87% of the total composition. Predictive equation of cellulosic material was further obtained. The addition of recovered cellulose fibres in mortars bring benefits in terms of lightness, microstructure and moisture buffering value (0.17 g/m2%UR). Concerning mechanical properties, flexural strength was improved with the addition of 20% of recovered cellulose fibres. In addition, a simplified economic assessment was reported for two possible pre-mixed blends with 5% and 20% of recovered fibres content.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/269923 Collegamento a IRIS

2019
Properties of multifunctional lightweight mortars containing zeolite and natural fibers
JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE CEMENT BASED MATERIALS
Autore/i: Giosuè, C.; Mobili, A.; Yu, Q. L.; Brouwers, H. J. H.; Ruello, M. L.; Tittarelli, F.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The article focuses on the development of innovative and multifunctional mortars with low environmental impact for indoor applications acting as passive systems to moderate extremes of humidity and to lower the concentration of pollutants. Mortars are manufactured by keeping constant the water/binder ratio, using sand as reference aggregate, and by replacing the total volume of sand with zeolite. In some mixes the aggregate, is also at 25vol% by wool natural fibers. Regardless lightness, zeolite thanks to its pozzolanic activity, helps to improve the compressive strength of mortars manufactured with wool fibers. In addition, the combination of zeolite and wool increases the hygro-thermal performance of mortars: water vapor resistance factor (22% lower than the reference), moisture buffering value (100% higher than the reference), and thermal conductivity (66% lower than the reference), respectively. Depolluting properties of zeolite-based mortars, in terms of adsorption capacity, are 65% lower than that of reference mortar.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/266704 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Bricks and Concrete Wastes as Coarse and Fine Aggregates in Sustainable Mortars
ADVANCES IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Giosue', Chiara; Corinaldesi, Valeria; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The total substitution by volume of natural coarse calcareous aggregate by coarse recycled brick aggregate (RBA) and coarse recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) has been investigated to produce more sustainable and environment-friendly mortars. Aggregates were also partially substituted by their fines at 12.5% by volume. Mortars have been tested in terms of mechanical, microstructural, and durability properties. Results show that it is feasible to replace a natural calcareous aggregate entirely by recycled aggregates. In particular, the obtained mortars, even if more porous and more prone to the water capillary absorption than that manufactured with natural aggregates, result in less stiffness and thus are less subjected to crack formation, more permeable to water vapour, and less susceptible to sulphate attack.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/259827 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Recycled Glass as Aggregate for Architectural Mortars
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES AND MATERIALS
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The possibility of recycling mixed colour waste glass as it is for manufacturing decorative architectural mortars, has been investigated. In mortars, the 0–33–66–100% of calcareous gravel volume has been replaced with recycled glass cullets, with no other inorganic addition. To mitigate the possible alkali–silica reaction, mixes with a hydrophobic admixture were also compared. The obtained results show that the replacement of calcareous gravel with glass cullets of similar grain size distribution permits to reduce the dosage of the superplasticizer admixture to obtain the same workability of fresh mortar; it does not affect significantly the mechanical performances, the water vapour permeability and the capillary water absorption but it reduces significantly the drying shrinkage deformation. The used recycled glass is classified as no reactive in terms of alkali–silica reaction neither in water nor in NaOH solution following the parameters of the current normative, even in the absence of the hydrophobic admixture. The hydrophobic admixture further delays the expansion trigger but not the speed of its propagation.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/260190 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Effect of pore structure on the performance of photocatalytic lightweight lime-based finishing mortar
CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
Autore/i: Giosue, C.; Yu, Q. L.; Ruello, M. L.; Tittarelli, F.; Brouwers, H. J. H.
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The present paper aims to evaluate the performance of photocatalytic lightweight indoor hydraulic limebased finishing mortars, with Portland cement-based finishing mortar as a reference. Two different types of aggregates, expanded glass and expanded silicate, are utilized to achieve the lightweight character and their contributions are investigated. The pore structure of the developed mortars is determined by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and BET methods. The mechanical strength, drying shrinkage, thermal physical properties and air pollutant removal ability of the mortars are investigated and the effects of pore structure on these properties are evaluated. Due to the higher porosity, lime-based finishing mortars possess a higher capillary water absorption and higher drying shrinkage, which can be explained by the Kelvin-Laplace mechanism. The limebased mortar shows very good thermal properties, with a thermal conductivity of 0.15 W/(mK). The lime-based mortar shows a better ability of removing air pollutants, up to 46% under indoor air conditions laboratory test, compared to the cement-based mortar, which is attributed to the lower content of gel pores present in the lime-based mortar. Expanded glass shows positive influences concerning thermal properties and air pollutant removal ability compared to expanded silicate.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/256375 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Corrosion behaviour of bare and galvanized steel in geopolymer and Ordinary Portland Cement based mortars with the same strength class exposed to chlorides
CORROSION SCIENCE
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; Mobili, Alessandra; Giosuè, Chiara; Belli, Alberto; Bellezze, Tiziano
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The corrosion behaviour of bare and galvanized steel reinforcements in geopolymeric and cementitious mortars, at three strength classes, has been investigated throughout the curing period and exposure to wet-dry cycles in 3.5% NaCl solution. During the curing, the high alkalinity of geopolymers prolongs the active state of both bare and galvanized steel. During the chloride exposure, fly ash geopolymers give the highest protection to reinforcements. The higher alkalinity of geopolymers compared to cement mortars seems to decrease the minimum free chloride threshold necessary to induce corrosion for galvanized steel, but it increases that for bare steel.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/255934 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Binders alternative to Portland cement and waste management for sustainable construction – Part 2
JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOMATERIALS & FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS
Autore/i: Coppola, Luigi; Bellezze, Tiziano; Belli, Alberto; C Bignozzi, Maria; Bolzoni, Fabio; Brenna, Andrea; Cabrini, Marina; Candamano, Sebastiano; Cappai, Marta; Caputo, Domenico; Carsana, Maddalena; Casnedi, Ludovica; Cioffi, Raffaele; Cocco6, Ombretta; Coffetti, Denny; Colangelo8, Francesco; Coppola, Bartolomeo; Corinaldesi, Valeria; Crea, Fortunato; Crotti, Elena; Daniele, Valeria; De Gisi, Sabino; Delogu, Francesco; V Diamanti, Maria; Di Maio, Luciano; Di Mundo, Rosa; Di Palma, Luca; Donnini, Jacopo; Farina, Ilenia; Ferone, Claudio; Frontera, Patrizia; Gastaldi, Matteo; Giosue', Chiara; Incarnato, Loredana; Liguori, Barbara; Lollini, Federica; Lorenzi, Sergio; Manzi, Stefania; Marino, Ottavio; Marroccoli, Milena; C Mascolo, Maria; Mavilia, Letterio; Mazzoli, Alida; Medici, Franco; Meloni, Paola; Merlonetti, Glauco; Mobili, Alessandra; Notarnicola, Michele; Ormellese, Marco; Pastore, Tommaso; Pia Pedeferri, Maria; Petrella, Andrea; Pia6, Giorgio; Redaelli, Elena; Roviello, Giuseppina; Scarfato, Paola; Scoccia, Giancarlo; Taglieri, Giuliana; Telesca, Antonio; Tittarelli, Francesca; Todaro, Francesco; Vilardi, Giorgio; Yang, Fan
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The paper represents the “state of the art” on sustainability in construction materials. In Part 1 of the paper, issues related to production, microstructures, chemical nature, engineering properties, and durability of mixtures based on binders alternative to Portland cement were presented. This second part of the paper concerns the use of traditional and innovative Portland-free lime-based mortars in the conservation of cultural heritage, and the recycling and management of wastes to reduce consumption of natural resources in the production of construction materials. The latter is one of the main concerns in terms of sustainability since nowadays more than 75% of wastes are disposed of in landfills.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/259227 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Valorisation of GRP Dust Waste in Fired Clay Bricks
ADVANCES IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Giosuè, Chiara; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In Europe, the total amount of Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) waste is increasing. In order to valorise GRP dust (GRPd) waste and to reduce the consumption of nonrenewable resources in building materials, GRPd has been already investigated in cementitious materials where it gives even an improvement in some performances of the final products. Valorisation of GRPd waste in the production of bricks can be considered as a further alternative. In this paper, GRPd waste was substituted to the clay volume at 5% and 10% for the manufacturing of fired clay bricks. All specimens were subjected to a firing temperature of 850°C for 6 hours, then tested and compared in terms of porosity, compressive and flexural strengths, density, and water absorption. Despite a decrease in compressive strength up to 46% with 10% of GRPd substitution and an increase of water absorption from 14% to 29% with 5% and 10% of GRPd substitution, respectively, an increase in terms of lightness (about 10%), maximum flexural strength (up to 31%), and deflections at the maximum load (up to 130%) has been registered by specimens with 10% of GRPd substitution.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/258690 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
In situ performance evaluation of chemical injections against rising damp: A case study in Italy
MEASUREMENT
Autore/i: Sardella, Alessandro; De Nuntiis, Paola; Rizzo, Marzia; Giosue', Chiara; Tittarelli, Francesca; Bonazza, Alessandra
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Rising damp is one of the most relevant cause of deterioration in historic buildings and its presence may trigger and intensify damage processes such as biodeterioration and decohesion linked to freeze-thaw and salt crystallization cycles. Treatment against rising damp is generally advised and several products are currently available in the market, whose efficiency, durability and compatibility with building materials are unfortunately still not exhaustively verified. For a proper evaluation of these features aiming at a sustainable protection and conservation of cultural heritage, test directly on site in addition to laboratory investigations is increasingly recommended. Within this work we illustrate and discuss results obtained during a test on site for the efficiency evaluation over time of treatments against rising damp based on chemical injections performed in one of the case studies in the JPICH Project EMERISDA.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/259444 Collegamento a IRIS

2018
Binders alternative to Portland cement and waste management for sustainable construction - Part 1
JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOMATERIALS & FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS
Autore/i: Coppola, Luigi; Bellezze, Tiziano; Belli, Alberto; Chiara Bignozzi, Maria; Bolzoni, Fabio; Brenna, Andrea; Cabrini, Marina; Candamano, Sebastiano; Cappai, Marta; Caputo, Domenico; Carsana, Maddalena; Casnedi, Ludovica; Cioffi, Raffaele; Cocco, Ombretta; Coffetti, Denny; Colangelo, Francesco; Coppola, Bartolomeo; Corinaldesi, Valeria; Crea, Fortunato; Crotti, Elena; Daniele, Valeria; De Gisi, Sabino; Delogu, Francesco; Vittoria Diamanti, Maria; Di Maio, Luciano; Di Mundo, Rosa; Di Palma, Luca; Donnini, Jacopo; Farina, Ilenia; Ferone, Claudio; Frontera, Patrizia; Gastaldi, Matteo; Giosue', Chiara; Incarnato, Loredana; Liguori, Barbara; Lollini, Federica; Lorenzi, Sergio; Manzi, Stefania; Marino, Ottavio; Marroccoli, Milena; Cristina Mascolo, Maria; Mavilia, Letterio; Mazzoli, Alida; Medici, Franco; Meloni, Paola; Merlonetti, Glauco; Mobili, Alessandra; Notarnicola, Michele; Ormellese, Marco; Pastore, Tommaso; Pia Pedeferri, Maria; Petrella, Andrea; Pia, Giorgio; Redaelli, Elena; Roviello, Giuseppina; Scarfato, Paola; Scoccia, Giancarlo; Taglieri, Giuliana; Telesca, Antonio; Tittarelli, Francesca; Todaro, Francesco; Vilardi and Fan Yang, Giorgio
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This review presents “a state of the art” report on sustainability in construction materials. The authors propose different solutions to make the concrete industry more environmentally friendly in order to reduce greenhouse gases emissions and consumption of non-renewable resources. Part 1—the present paper—focuses on the use of binders alternative to Portland cement, including sulfoaluminate cements, alkali-activated materials, and geopolymers. Part 2 will be dedicated to traditional Portland-free binders and waste management and recycling in mortar and concrete production.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/259226 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Innovative multifunctional materials with low environmental impact for energy saving, comfort and health of indoor environment
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara
Editore: Università Politecnica delle Marche
Classificazione: 8 Tesi di dottorato
Abstract: L’esigenza di un’elevata efficienza energetica degli edifici porta ad avere strutture isolate con limitati ricambi d’aria. Di conseguenza ci può essere un peggioramento della qualità dell’aria interna con aumento delle concentrazioni degli inquinanti aereo-dispersi e conseguenti ambienti confinati caratterizzati da una scarsa qualità dell’aria. Si spende molto tempo in ambienti confinati come uffici, residenze, scuole e altre strutture pubbliche che devono necessariamente avere un microclima sano e confortevole. Ristagni di umidità e concentrazioni elevate di inquinanti aereodispersi possono avere severe e gravi conseguenze sullo stato di salute degli occupanti degli edifici come la ben nota Sindrome da Edificio Malato (Sick Building Syndrom, SBS). Da qui nasce l’esigenza di sviluppare tecnologie che passivamente riescano a migliorate la qualità dell’aria indoor senza andare a inficiare sul conteggio energetico dell’edificio stesso. Lo scopo della ricerca è quello di sviluppare malte e/o finiture multifunzionali innovative che, senza ulteriori dispendi energetici, riescano a garantire un elevato comfort e la salubrità degli ambienti indoor. L’obiettivo sarà raggiunto impiegando nelle miscele preparate con diversi leganti (cemento, cemento fotocatalitico, calce idraulica naturale con e senza agente fotocatalitico) aggregati/filler non convenzionali con elevate capacità adsorbenti anche tramite l’utilizzo di sottoprodotti industriali. Le finiture multifunzionali potranno così adsorbire gli inquinanti aereodispersi in un reattore a micro-nano scala dove verranno rimossi, mantenendo nel tempo un’elevata efficienza. Dai risultati ottenuti si è dimostrato come le malte innovative multifunzionali, oltre a soddisfare i requisiti ordinari, sono in grado di migliorare passivamente la qualità dell’aria di ambienti confinati. In particolare le finiture garantiscono elevata traspirabilità, sono buoni tamponi igroscopici e hanno un’elevata capacità disinquinante.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/245557 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Combined Use of Shrinkage Reducing Admixture and CaO in Cement Based Materials
IOP CONFERENCE SERIES: MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; Giosue', Chiara; Monosi, Saveria
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The combined addition of a Shrinkage-Reducing Admixture (SRA) with a CaObased expansive agent (CaO) has been found to have a synergistic effect to improve the dimensional stability of cement based materials. In this work, aimed to further investigate the effect, mortar and self-compacting concrete specimens were prepared either without admixtures, as reference, or with SRA alone and/or CaO. Their performance was compared in terms of compressive strength and free shrinkage measurements. Results showed that the synergistic effect in reducing shrinkage is confirmed in the specimens manufactured with SRA and CaO. In order to clarify this phenomenon, the effect of SRA on the hydration of CaO as well as cement was evaluated through different techniques. The obtained results show that SRA induces a finer microstructure of the CaO hydration products and a retarding effect on the microstructure development of cement based materials. A more deformable mortar or concrete, due to the delay in microstructure development by SRA, coupled with a finer microstructure of CaO hydration products could allow higher early expansion, which might contribute in contrasting better the successive drying shrinkage.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/251671 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Non-Destructive Testing for the In Situ Assessment of the Ionic Flux in Cementitious Materials
IOP CONFERENCE SERIES: MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; Pierpaoli, Mattia; Giosue', Chiara; Ruello, Maria Letizia
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The study deals with the design, calibration and testing of a diffusive sampling probe for in situ assessment of ion mobility in binder-based matrix. In parallel, leaching texts were conducted to compare the ions release obtained under equilibrium condition with the dynamic flux induced by the diffusive sampling probe. The probe contains an ionic exchange resin that acts as sink, causing a re-supply of ions from the solid to the solution phase, and inducing diffusion fluxes from the mortar through a thin diffusion chamber. The flux depends on the quantity of mobile ions in the solid phase and on the exchanging rate from solid phase to solution. By means of the in situ sampling with this diffusive probe, information about the interaction of materials with the environment can be obtained. This information is very useful for the environmental impact assessment of the material and its durability.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/251357 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Chararacterization of bricks and mortars used in Quang Tri citadel -Vietnam
JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOMATERIALS & FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Carlorosi, Cecilia; Marcellini, Mirco; Mobili, Alessandra; Van Tan, N; Pugnaloni, Fausto; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/251378 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Effect of unconventional fillers on the performances of commercial paints for indoor applications
JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOMATERIALS & FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Belli, Alberto; Mobili, Alessandra; Tribuiani, C; Favoni, Orlando; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/251379 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Comportamento a corrosione di armature zincate in malte geopolimeriche e cementizie a parità di classe di resistenza - Corrosion behavior of galvanized steel reinforcements in geopolymeric and cementitious mortars at the same strength class
LA METALLURGIA ITALIANA
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Belli, Alberto; Giosue', Chiara; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The corrosion behavior of galvanized steel rebars embedded in geopolymer mortar was compared to that of the same reinforcements embedded in a cementitious mortar with the same mechanical strength class. The corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of these bars were measured throughout the first month of curing for all manufactured specimens, and then one half was submitted to weekly wet-dry cycles in 3.5% NaCl solution and the other half to weekly wet-dry cycles in tap water after exposure to a chamber with 3% of CO2. In the first month, the high alkalinity of geopolymers delayed the achievement of the galvanized steel passive state, but after reinforcements reached the same corrosion rates of those embedded in the cementitious mortars. In chlorides exposure, the lowest porosity of geopolymers hindered the ingress of chloride ions offering the highest protection to reinforcements. Also in carbonated matrices, during exposure to wet-dry cycles in tap water, galvanized bars had the lowest corrosion rates when embedded in the geopolymeric matrices.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/250491 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Effect of commercial and waste carbonaceous fillers on the mechanical and electrical properties of innovative mortars
JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOMATERIALS & FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Belli, Alberto; Giosue', Chiara; Mancini, Roberto; Mazzoli, Alida; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/251377 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Malta Multifunzionale
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra
Classificazione: 6 Brevetti
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/295288 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Diagnosis and methods against rising damp in industrial heritage buildings: a case study in Italy
IMEKO International Conference on Metrology for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, MetroArchaeo 2017
Autore/i: Sardella, Alessandro; De Nuntiis, Paola; Giosue', Chiara; Tittarelli, Francesca; Bonazza, Alessandra
Editore: Athena srl
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: The presence of water and rising damp in particular is the most relevant cause of decay in historic buildings. Damage processes such as biodeterioration, frost and salt crystallization arise or are intensified in the presence of rising damp and its relevance is expected to increase in the future, due to climate changes. Treatment against rising damp is therefore generally advised for protection and durable conservation of historic buildings. The JPICH Project “Effectiveness of methods against rising damp in buildings: European practice and perspective – EMERISDA” aimed at a scientifically based evaluation of the effectiveness of different methods against rising damp and decision support tool definition for a conscious choice use of these methods in the practice of conservation. During the present contribution, the main results obtained for the case study in Ferrara (Italia) will be discussed. Specifically, the treatments applied and the methodological approach for their effectiveness assessment will be presented.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/256837 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Comportamento a corrosione di armature in acciaio e acciaio zincato in matrici geo-polimeriche e cementizie esposte a cloruri e carbonatazione accelerata
Atti delle Giornate di Studio sui Geopolimeri IX edizione Geopolimeri e Compositi
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Belli, Alberto; Giosue', Chiara; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Il presente lavoro confronta il comportamento a corrosione di armature in acciaio e acciaio zincato in matrici cementizie e geopolimeriche a pari classe di resistenza (R1, R2, R3). I risultati hanno mostrato che l’elevata alcalinità dei geopolimeri rallenta il raggiungimento della condizione di passività delle armature, in particolare per quelle in acciaio zincato. Dopo circa 10 giorni, tutte le armature danno velocità di corrosione paragonabili a quelle delle barre immerse nelle malte cementizie. La bassa porosità dei geopolimeri con cenere volante limita l’ingresso dei cloruri e offre la maggiore protezione a entrambi i tipi di barre. Durante l’esposizione ai cicli di bagnasciuga in acqua, successiva all’esposizione in camera di carbonatazione, entrambi i tipi di armatura registrano le più basse velocità di corrosione se immersi nei geopolimeri con cenere volante.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/245133 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Comportamento a corrosione di armature zincate in malte geopolimeriche e cementizie a parità di classe di resistenza - Corrosion behavior of galvanized steel reinforcements in geopolymeric and cementitious mortars at the same strength class
Giornate Nazionali sulla Corrosione e Protezione
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Belli, Alberto; Giosue', Chiara; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: The corrosion behavior of galvanized steel rebars embedded in geopolymer mortar was compared to that of the same reinforcements embedded in a cementitious mortar with the same mechanical strength class. The corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of these bars were measured throughout the first month of curing for all manufactured specimens, and then one half was submitted to weekly wet-dry cycles in 3.5% NaCl solution and the other half to weekly wet-dry cycles in tap water after exposure to a chamber with 3% of CO2. In the first month, the high alkalinity of geopolymers delayed the achievement of the galvanized steel passive state, but after reinforcements reached the same corrosion rates of those embedded in the cementitious mortars. In chlorides exposure, the lowest porosity of geopolymers hindered the ingress of chloride ions offering the highest protection to reinforcements. Also in carbonated matrices, during exposure to wet-dry cycles in tap water, galvanized bars had the lowest corrosion rates when embedded in the geopolymeric matrices.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/249647 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Lightweight materials for indoor application: the way to increase comfort and health of occupants
JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOMATERIALS & FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Yu, Q; Tittarelli, Francesca; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Brouwers, Hjh
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/251376 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Improving the Impact of Commercial Paint on Indoor Air Quality by Using Highly Porous Fillers
BUILDINGS
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Belli, Alberto; Mobili, Alessandra; Citterio, Barbara; Biavasco, Francesca; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In the current paper, the effect on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) of two commercial acrylic-based paints were compared: one (Paint A) for indoor applications, the other (Paint B) for indoor/outdoor applications. Both were applied on an inert and on a real mortar substrate. The possibility of Paint B to passively improve IAQ was also investigated when adding highly porous adsorbent fillers, both as addition or as total replacement of a conventional siliceous one. The obtained results show that all paints have high capacity to inhibit biological growth. Paint A is more breathable and it has a higher moisture buffering capacity. Paint B negatively modifies the beneficial properties of the mortar substrate for IAQ. However, the use of unconventional fillers, especially as addition to the formulation, allows the recovery of the same properties of the substrate or even the enhancement of about 20% of the ability to adsorb volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under the current test conditions.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/252233 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Durability assessment to environmental impact of nano-structured consolidants on Carrara marble by field exposure tests
SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
Autore/i: Bonazza, Alessandra; Vidorni, Giorgia; Natali, Irene; Ciantelli, Chiara; Giosue', Chiara; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The EU policy of reducing theemissions of combustion generated pollutants entails climate induced deterioration to become more important. Moreover, products applied to preserve outdoor built heritage and their preliminary performance tests often turn out to be improper. In such context, the paper reports the outcomes of the methodology adopted to assess the durability and efficiency of nano-based consolidating products utilized for the conservation of carbonate artworks, performing field exposure tests on Carrara marble model samples in different sites in the framework of the EC Project NANOMATCH. Surface properties and cohesion, extent and penetration of the conservative products and their interactions with marble substrates and environmental conditions are here examined after outdoor exposure for eleven months in four different European cities and compared with the features of undamaged and of untreated damaged specimens undergoing the same exposure settings.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/238690 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Calcium Sulfoaluminate, Geopolymeric, and Cementitious Mortars for Structural Applications
ENVIRONMENTS
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Belli, Alberto; Giosue', Chiara; Telesca, Antonio; Marroccoli, Milena; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: This paper deals with the study of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) and geopolymeric (GEO) binders as alternatives to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) for the production of more environmentally-friendly construction materials. For this reason, three types of mortar with the same mechanical strength class (R3 25 MPa, according to EN 1504-3) were tested and compared; they were based on CSA cement, an alkaline activated coal fly ash, and OPC. Firstly, binder pastes were prepared and their hydration was studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal-thermogravimetric (DT-TG) analyses. Afterwards, mortars were compared in terms of workability, dynamic modulus of elasticity, adhesion to red clay bricks, free and restrained drying shrinkage, water vapor permeability, capillary water absorption, and resistance to sulfate attack. DT-TG and XRD analyses evidenced the main reactive phases of the investigated binders involved in the hydration reactions. Moreover, the sulfoaluminate mortar showed the smallest free shrinkage and the highest restrained shrinkage, mainly due to its high dynamic modulus of elasticity. The pore size distribution of geopolymeric mortar was responsible for the lowest capillary water absorption at short times and for the highest permeability to water vapor and the greatest resistance to sulfate attack.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/251172 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Stainless and Galvanized Steel, Hydrophobic Admixture and Flexible Polymer-Cement Coating Compared in Increasing Durability of Reinforced Concrete Structures
IOP CONFERENCE SERIES: MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The use of stainless or galvanized steel reinforcements, a hydrophobic admixture or a flexible polymer-cement coating were compared as methods to improve the corrosion resistance of sound or cracked reinforced concrete specimens exposed to chloride rich solutions. The results show that in full immersion condition, negligible corrosion rates were detected in all cracked specimens, except those treated with the flexible polymer-cement mortar as preventive method against corrosion and the hydrophobic concrete specimens. High corrosion rates were measured in all cracked specimens exposed to wet-dry cycles, except for those reinforced with stainless steel, those treated with the flexible polymer-cement coating as restorative method against reinforcement corrosion and for hydrophobic concrete specimens reinforced with galvanized steel reinforcements
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/251358 Collegamento a IRIS

2017
Influence of Binders and Lightweight Aggregates on the Properties of Cementitious Mortars: From Traditional Requirements to Indoor Air Quality Improvement
MATERIALS
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Pierpaoli, Mattia; Mobili, Alessandra; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Innovative and multifunctional mortars for renders and panels were manufactured using white photocatalytic and non-photocatalytic cement as binder. Unconventional aggregates, based on lightweight materials with high specific surface and adsorbent properties, were adopted in order to investigate the possible ability to passively improve indoor air quality. The reference mortar was manufactured with traditional calcareous sand. Results show that even if the mechanical properties of mortars with unconventional aggregates generally decrease, they remain acceptable for application as render. The innovative mortars were able to passively improve indoor air quality in terms of transpirability (70% higher), moisture buffering ability (65% higher) and depolluting capacity (up to 75% higher) compared to traditional ones under the current test conditions.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/250516 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Non-destructive testing for the in situ assessment of the ionic flux in cementitious materials
International Conference on Advanced Material Technologies (ICAMT)-2016
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; Pierpaoli, Mattia; Giosue', Chiara; Ruello, Maria Letizia
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/249813 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Effect of biomass waste materials as unconventional aggregates in multifunctional mortars for indoor application.
World Multidisciplinary Civil Engineering-Architecture-Urban Planning Symposium WMCAUS 2016
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra; Toscano, Giuseppe; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Francesca, Tittarelli
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: In order to decrease energy consumption in buildings, a new way to recycle waste materials coming from biomasses by-product in mortars was studied. In this way a better management of biomass waste, reducing materials in landfill, can also be reached. To this aim, mortars with water/cement equal to 0.5 by weight and aggregate/cement equal to 3.5 by volume were considered. Then, cement was replaced by hydraulic lime and sand was substituted with two different types of spruce sawdust shavings (as it is and roasted), biomass bottom ash and biomass fly ash. The results show that mortar prepared with cement has obviously better mechanical compressive strength and 60% lower capillary water absorption. All unconventional aggregates increase the total porosity of lime mortars from 41%, in the case of biomass bottom ash, to 52% in the case of spruce sawdust shavings and fly ash. Moreover, biomass fly ash and both spruce sawdust shavings, decrease density of mortars to permit the classification as lightweight mortar (with ρ less than 1300 kg/m3). Regardless porosity and lightness, biomass bottom ash improves up to 150% the mechanical performance of lime-based mortars. As regards durability, in general bio-based lime mortars show nearly twice higher capillary water absorption with respect to sand lime mortars. Roasted spruce sawdust shavings and biomass bottom ash decreases the capillary water absorption of lime mortars of about 5% and 50%, respectively regardless of porosity and lightness. All mortars can be classified as permeable to water vapour, since the vapour transmission resistance factors are very close or less than 15. Moreover, spruce sawdust shavings as it is and roasted are able to increase three and two times the capacity of mortar to be a hygroscopic buffer in terms of MBV values. All biomass waste unconventional aggregates improve the depollution capacity in terms of percentage of adsorbed Volatile Organic Compound as Methyl Ethyl Keton (MEK) inside a sealed box of lime-based mortars. In particular, both biomass ashes (bottom and fly) show the best performances with a reduction of MEK concentration 75% higher than reference lime mortars adsorbing up to 95% of MEK after two hours test.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/236252 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Appraisal of a hybrid air cleaning process
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL
Autore/i: Pierpaoli, Mattia; Giosue', Chiara; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Fava, Gabriele
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Nowadays, there is an amplified interest in maintaining suitable indoor air quality (IAQ). Besides a wide range of available interventions, air cleaners are considered a valuable tool, since based on inexpensive and easily implementing technologies to improve IAQ. The purpose of this work is to combine the TiO2-photocatalysis with the electrostatic and adsorption processes, in order to improve efficiency and reliability. A TiO2-photocatalytic oxidation combined with an electrostatic filter has been studied. Nitrogen oxides reduction and degradation of many VOC over different catalyst support were monitored jointly with CO and CO2 production. The coupling of photocatalysis with an external electric field enhances efficiency of the process. The choice of materials with diversified adsorptive characteristics plays an important role in the durability of the process over time.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/246460 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
FIELD EXPOSURE TESTS TO EVALUATE THE EFFICIENCY OF NANO-STRUCTURED CONSOLIDANTS ON CARRARA MARBLE
Science and Art: A Future for Stone: Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Volume 1.
Autore/i: Bonazza, A.; Vidorni, G.; Natali, I.; Giosue', Chiara; Tittarelli, Francesca; Sabbioni, C.
Editore: Paisley: University of the West of Scotland
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: In a context of changing environment, the preservation of outdoor built heritage is increasingly threatening. Furthermore the application of conservative products not always achieved the expected results as well as preliminary tests aimed at evaluating the performance of new products often proved to be inappropriate. In such situation, the paper reports the outcomes of the innovative methodology adopted to assess the efficiency and durability of nano-based consolidating products utilized for the conservation of carbonate artworks, carrying out field exposure tests on Carrara Marble model samples in different sites. Surface properties, superficial cohesion, distribution, penetration of the conservative products and their interactions with substrates and environmental conditions were examined and compared with the features of undamaged samples and of those artificially damaged.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/238307 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Metakaolin and fly ash alkali-activated mortars compared with cementitious mortars at the same strength class
CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Belli, Alberto; Giosue', Chiara; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Alkali activated and cementitious mortars belonging to R1 ≥ 10 MPa, R2 ≥ 15 MPa and R3 ≥ 25 MPa strength classes are tested and compared in terms of workability, dynamic modulus of elasticity, porosimetry and water vapour permeability. Capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage, resistance to sulphate attack and corrosion behaviour of embedded bare and galvanized reinforcements have also been investigated. In alkali activated mortars, drying shrinkage is higher than that of cementitious mortars but restrained shrinkage is lower due to lower modulus of elasticity. Water vapour permeability is more pronounced in alkali activated mortars, and capillary water absorption is lower in those prepared with fly ash. The high alkalinity of alkali activated mortars was seen to delay the onset of the passive state in particular for galvanized reinforcements, but after one month of curing they were found to reach the same corrosion rates of those embedded in cementitious mortars.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/238869 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Cement mortars and geopolymers with the same strength class
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Giosue', Chiara; Bitetti, Michele; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Recycling of industrial waste materials to manufacture environmentally friendly mortars and concretes is gaining more and more interest, in particular for sustainability, rehabilitation and renovation purposes. In the present study geopolymers, which had been made using fly ash as a precursor and were subsequently subjected to curing at room temperature, were investigated. Geopolymeric and cementitious mortars with the same mechanical strength class were compared in both the fresh and hardened states. Despite the higher free shrinkage and lower adhesive strength on brick substrate, geopolymeric mortars behaved better than cement types in terms of lower dynamic modulus of elasticity, higher water vapour permeability, lower capillary water absorption and higher resistance to salt crystallisation.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/227440 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Stainless and galvanized steel, hydrophobic admixture and flexible polymer-cement coating compared in increasing durability of reinforced concrete structures
International Conference on Advanced Material Technologies (ICAMT)-2016
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/249811 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
COMMERCIAL AND WASTE CARBON BASED NANO/MICRO FILLERS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE AND MULTIFUNCTIONAL MORTARS
National Young Researchers' Forum on Materials Science and Technology
Autore/i: Belli, Alberto; Mobili, Alessandra; Giosue', Chiara; Toscano, Giuseppe; Mazzoli, Alida; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/246366 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Appraisal of a Multitasking Air Cleaner Process Based on Multiple Combined Techniques
9th European meeting on Solar Chemistry and Photocatalysis: Environmental Applications (SPEA)
Autore/i: Pierpaoli, Mattia; Giosue', Chiara; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Fava, Gabriele
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Nowadays there is an amplified interest in maintaining suitable Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). Besides a wide range of available interventions, air cleaners are considered a valuable tool since based on inexpensive and easily implementing technologies to improve IAQ. The purpose of this work is to combine the TiO2-photocatalysis with the electrostatic and adsorptive processes, in order to improve efficiency and selectivity. A TiO2-photocatalytic oxidation combined with an electrostatic filter has been studied. Nitrogen oxide reduction and degradation of many Volatile Organic Compounds over different catalyst support were monitored jointly with CO and CO2 production. The choice of materials with diversified adsorptive characteristics plays an important role in the observed efficiency and selectivity.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/246464 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Materials Characterization of bricks and mortars
dMz & Military Architecture Levels for a Landscape Thanh Co Quang Tri Viet Nam
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: Asian Books
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/251802 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Photocatalytic Cement-based Mortars with Unconventional Aggregates for the Improvement of Indoor Air Quality
9th European Meeting on Solar Chemistry and Photocatalysis: Environmental Applications (SPEA-9)
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Pierpaoli, Mattia; Mobili, Alessandra; Tittarelli, Francesca; Ruello, Maria Letizia
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Using of passive systems to improve Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) could be very useful in terms of energy savings and comfort of occupants. This study focused on an innovative and multifunctional mortar able to improve IAQ. The action of Photocatalytic binder coupled with adsorbent materials used as aggregates was investigated. Results show better water vapour permeability and moisture buffering capacity, and lower mechanical properties of unconventional-aggregate based mortars with respect to the traditional ones. With respect to VOC, depollution capacity of the former was up to 65% higher than the mortar prepared with sand. The addition of UV irradiation positively influences depollution capacity even in presence of conventional aggregate.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/238679 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Effect of Biomass Waste Materials as Unconventional Aggregates in Multifunctional Mortars for Indoor Application
PROCEDIA ENGINEERING
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra; Toscano, Giuseppe; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In order to decrease energy consumption in buildings, a new way to recycle materials coming from biomasses waste in mortars was studied. For this purpose, mortars with water/cement equal to 0.5 by weight and aggregate/cement equal to 3.5 by volume were considered. Cement was replaced by hydraulic lime and sand was substituted with two different types of spruce sawdust shavings (as it is and roasted), biomass bottom ash and biomass fly ash. The results show that mortar prepared with cement has obviously a better mechanical strength and 60% lower capillary water absorption. All unconventional aggregates increase the total porosity of lime mortars. Moreover, biomass fly ash and both spruce sawdust shavings based mortars can be classified as lightweight mortar. Regardless of porosity and lightness, biomass bottom ash improves up to 150% the mechanical performance of lime-based mortars. Concerning durability, bio-based lime mortars show in general nearly twice higher capillary water absorption with respect to the sand lime mortars whit the exception of spruce sawdust shavings and biomass bottom ash. Mortars can be classified as permeable to water vapour. As it is and roasted spruce sawdust shavings are able to increase three and two times the capacity of the mortar to be a hygroscopic buffer in terms of MBV values.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/246019 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Waste materials in the production of traditional building ceramics: effect of GRP dust waste addition on properties of fired bricks
JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOMATERIALS & FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The total amount of end-of-life and production waste generated by glass thermo-set composites market in Europe reaches 304,000 tonnes (2015) triggering interest in optimizing Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) waste recovery. Now, landfill as non hazardous waste remains the most popular solution to manage GRP waste for the difficulty of separating the different parts, its intrinsic thermo-set composite nature and the insufficient knowledge on recycling options. Recently, GRP dust (GRPd) waste in cementitious matrix has been investigated to improve performances. Effects of GRPd waste addition in the production of bricks can also be considered. The polymeric part in GRPd will burn during cooking: additional porosity can be left in the matrix improving final lightness; the glass fibers in GRPd waste can reinforce the ceramic matrix decreasing fragility and increasing the bricks bending strength.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/246184 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Improving Indoor Air quality with passive systems: a new perspective for sustainable indoor building materials
JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOMATERIALS & FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Mancini, Roberto; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: In order to reduce energy consumption in buildings, more isolated and sealed structures are designed. The resulting poor air changing decreases indoor air quality in terms of not adequate levels of indoor humidity and high concentration of pollutants. Reactive building materials offer an opportunity to provide indoor air cleaning with minimal energy use. This research focuses on the development of innovative and multifunctional mortar for indoor panels with low environmental impact able to improve comfort and health of occupants. This material exploits the positive interaction between different constituents usually used separately (e.i. wool insulating panels or lime-zeolite mortars).
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/246188 Collegamento a IRIS

2016
Effect of using recycled instead of virgin EPS in lightweight mortars
PROCEDIA ENGINEERING
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra; DI PERNA, Costanzo; Monosi, Saveria
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: Performances of structural, moderate and heat insulating lightweight mortars manufactured by replacing sand volume with virgin or recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS) are compared. At the same dosage, replacing virgin EPS with recycled one improves the mechanical performance of mortars without significant variation in capillary water absorption and water vapour permeability. Recycled EPS mortars have lower thermal insulation properties than those manufactured with virgin one, but this can be counteracted by increasing the percentage of EPS. To obtain mortars with a certain thermal insulating capacity, an economical save over than 25% can be reached by using recycled EPS.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/238860 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
Improvement of indoor air quality using photocatalytic cement-based mortars
Advanced Building Skins
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: EF ECONOMIC FORUM
Luogo di pubblicazione: Munich
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Recent European laws and directives are stricter in terms of energy efficiency of buildings. Constructions are currently built up more sealed and there is not enough air changing. This condition leads to a greater risk of unhealthy indoor environments. Mortars, plasters and finishings can have an active role to improve indoor air quality. In this research five different mortars, with water/cement = 0.5 by weight and aggregate/cement = 3.5 by volume, are manufactured using different aggregates. Conventional aggregate is compared as reference with unconventional aggregates with large specific surface and high porosity, substituted by volume. The binder is a photocatalytic white cement with TiO2, potentially able to decompose the adsorbed pollutants. Mortars are characterized in terms of fresh and hardened properties. The results show that mortars prepared with unconventional aggregates have lower, even still acceptable, mechanical performances with respect to reference one. However, they show better permeability and moisture buffering capacity. Depollution properties are evaluated with the adsorption capacity of Volatile Organic Compounds. Mortars manufactured with unconventional aggregates show a depollution capacity up to two times higher with respect to that of conventional sand. The addition of UV irradiation positively influences depollution capacity even in presence of conventional aggregate.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/228237 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
Influence of binders and aggregates on VOCs adsorption and moisture buffering activity of mortars for indoor applications
CEMENT & CONCRETE COMPOSITES
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra; Ruello, Maria Letizia
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The implementation of energy efficiency measures leads to more tightly sealed buildings. These energysaving measures directly worsen indoor air quality leading to increased humidity and concentration of pollutants as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Our work compares the de-pollution efficiency and moisture buffering capacity of five mortars for indoor applications. Methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK) is chosen as pollutant model. The effect of binders (cement, cement + air-entraining admixture, lime) and aggregates (sand, zeolite, perlite) on the mechanical properties, water absorption and morphology of mortars was also evaluated. All mortars adsorb MEK during the first period, but only those manufactured with lime–zeolite do not saturate after 30 min with a de-pollution efficiency of about 85% after 24 h. The Moisture Buffering Capacity (MBC) of lime mortars is three times higher with respect to that measured in cement mortars. The MBC of lime–zeolite mortars is double with respect to that measured in lime–sand mortars.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/210113 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
Metakaolin and fly ash based geopolymers compared with cementitious mortars of the same strength class: performances and corrosion behaviour of black and galvanized steel bars
Geopolymers: The route to eliminate waste and emissions in ceramic and cement manufacturing
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Giosue', Chiara; Belli, Alberto; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: Società Ceramica Italiana
Luogo di pubblicazione: Bologna
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: Mechanical, morphological and durability aspects of three types of geopolymer mortars were compared with those of traditional cementitious mortars of comparable compressive strength. To this aim, mortars belonging to three mechanical strength classes (R1 ≥ 10 MPa, R2 ≥ 15 MPa and R3 ≥ 25 MPa according to EN 1504-3:2005) were tested and compared. Geopolymers were obtained with fly ash and metakaolin as precursors and a mixture of sodium silicate and NaOH or KOH as liquid activators. In order to obtain R1, R2 and R3 mortars cementitious mixtures were prepared by partial substitution of Portland cement with hydraulic lime, while geopolymers were prepared by varying the concentration of NaOH or KOH with a waterglass/hydroxide ratio always equal to 1. The obtained samples were characterized both in the fresh and in the hardened state. The first was evaluated by workability and density of the fresh mortar, the latter by compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, adhesive strength on ceramic surface, free and restrained shrinkage and by microstructural analysis such as SEM and mercury porosimetry. Durability aspects were also investigated through water vapor permeability, capillary water absorption, resistance to salt crystallization and corrosion of possible embedded rebars. Corrosion tests were carried out by measuring corrosion potential and corrosion rates of black and galvanized steel bars during both the curing period and wet-dry cycles in a chloride solution. At the same mechanical strength class, geopolymers shrink more than cementitious mortars if free while their low modulus of elasticity causes a lower shrinkage if mortars are restrained with bars. Pore dimensions affect the water vapor permeability, which resulted to be more pronounced in geopolymers than in cement mortars, and capillary water absorption with low values especially for fly ash geopolymers. During the first month of curing, the higher alkalinity of geopolymers matrix prolongs the active state of both black and galvanized steel bars. However, when exposed to a chloride solution, fly ash based geopolymers offer a higher protection to reinforcements than cementitious mortars.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/228044 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
Metakaolin and fly ash based geopolymers compared with cementitious mortars of the same strength class: performances and corrosion behaviour of black and galvanized steel bars
Geopolymers: the route to eliminate waste and emissions in ceramic and cement manufacturing
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Giosue', Chiara; Belli, Alberto; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: ECI Engineering Conference International
Luogo di pubblicazione: New York
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/227812 Collegamento a IRIS

2015
Geopolymeric and cementitious mortars with the same mechanical strength class: performances and corrosion behaviour of black and galvanized steel bars
Durability and Sustainability of Concrete Structures ACI SP-305
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Giosue', Chiara; Belli, Alberto; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: American Concrete Institute
Luogo di pubblicazione: Farmington Hill, Michigan 48331
Classificazione: 2 Contributo in Volume
Abstract: In the prospect of reducing CO2 emissions and landfilling of waste materials, the preparation of sustainable mortars by alkali activation was studied. According to EN 1504-3:2005, geopolymeric and cementitious mortars belonging to different strength classes (R1 ≥ 10 MPa, R2 ≥ 15 MPa and R3 ≥ 25 MPa) were tested and compared. Geopolymers were obtained with fly ash or metakaolin and a blend of sodium silicate and NaOH (or KOH). Mortars were tested in terms of workability, dynamic modulus of elasticity, drying and restrained shrinkage and porosimetry. Durability was also investigated in terms of water vapour permeability, capillary water absorption and corrosion of possible embedded rebars during the curing period and wet-dry cycles in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that geopolymers are subjected to higher drying shrinkage but lower restrained shrinkage than cementitious mortars. Water vapour permeability was higher in geopolymers and capillary water absorption was lower especially in fly ash geopolymers than those of cementitious mortars. During the first month, the high alkalinity of geopolymers extends the active state of both black and galvanized steel bars. However, when exposed to chlorides, fly ash geopolymers offer a higher protection to reinforcements than cementitious mortars.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/228051 Collegamento a IRIS

2014
Confronto del comportamento di due differenti tipologie di malte geopolimeriche a base di cenere volante
Atti del 12° Convegno Nazionale AIMAT
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Giosue', Chiara; M., Bitetti; Favoni, Orlando; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: AIMAT
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: La sempre maggiore richiesta di materiali da costruzione a ridotto impatto ambientale con la possibilità di riciclare materiali di scarto è stato l’impulso per lo sviluppo di leganti geopolimerici come possibili sostituti del tradizionale cemento Portland per il confezionamento di malte. La ricerca è stata condotta confrontando le prestazioni di 2 differenti serie di malte a base geopolimerica a parità di classe di resistenza meccanica: R1 ≥ 10MPa, R2 ≥ 15MPa, R3 ≥ 25MPa e R4≥ 45MPa, in accordo con la norma UNI EN 1504-3:2006. I geopolimeri sono il risultato della reazione chimica tra materiali sorgente e una soluzione alcalina. In questo studio, le malte geopolimeriche sono state confezionate con cenere volante (prima serie) e con cenere volante parzialmente sostituita con cemento alluminoso (seconda serie) come materiali sorgente. Come soluzione alcalina è stata utilizzata una soluzione di silicato di sodio e di idrossido di sodio, in assenza di cemento alluminoso, o di potassio, in presenza di cemento alluminoso, a differenti concentrazioni. Tutte le malte geopolimeriche sono state preparate con rapporto sabbia/cenere di 3:1, mantenendo sempre pari a 1 il rapporto tra il peso della soluzione di silicato di sodio e la soluzione di NaOH o KOH. In generale, nonostante la minore permeabilità al vapore rispetto alle miscele con NaOH, le malte con KOH hanno ottenuto pari assorbimento d’acqua per capillarità, una maggiore aderenza al mattone e un minore ritiro libero. Inoltre, la presenza del cemento alluminoso e dell’idrossido di potassio nei geopolimeri ha contribuito alla riduzione delle efflorescenze.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/194503 Collegamento a IRIS

2014
Sustainable and Durable No-fines Concrete for Vertical Applications
International Journal Conference on Humanities, Bio-Science, Chemical and Environmental Engineering (HBCEE'2014)
Autore/i: Francesca, Tittarelli; Mobili, Alessandra; Giosue', Chiara; Ruello, Maria Letizia
Editore: ISAET
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: No-fines concretes with compressive strength in the range 7-30 MPa at 28 days of curing were optimized by changing the water-cement ratio from 0.41 to 0.34 and the aggregate-cement ratio from 8 to 4. Some mixtures were also repeated with the addition of a hydrophobic admixture and prepared by fully replacing the ordinary aggregate with recycled aggregate to evaluate durability effects. High susceptibility to carbonation was observed for all the no-fines mixes studied. The use of recycled aggregate increases capillary water absorption (about 50%); however, the related decrease in durability could be easily counteracted with the use of a hydrophobic admixture.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/149103 Collegamento a IRIS

2014
Cementitious and geo-polymeric mortars compared with the same mechanical strength class
Young Researchers' Forum II: Construction Materials
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Giosue', Chiara; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: The Institute of Concrete Technology
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: In the perspective of using environmentally friendly materials for the rehabilitation and restoration of ancient buildings, the behaviour of geo-polymeric mortars was studied. The research was developed into two main aspects: substitution of Portland cement with an alternative binder and recycling of industrial by-products. The experimentation was carried out comparing the performances of cementitious and geo-polymeric mortars with the same mechanical strength class (R1≥ 10 MPa, R2 ≥ 15 MPa, R3 ≥ 25 MPa, R4 ≥ 45 MPa), according to the European Standard. In particular, four geo-polymeric mixtures were prepared with a sodium silicate/sodium hydroxide proportion of 1:1 with different concentration of NaOH and a sand/fly ash proportion of 2.7:1. Four cementitious mortars were prepared with water/cement equal to 0.5, 0.65, 0.9 and 1.1 by weight, respectively. Different properties both in fresh and hardened state were evaluated and compared. The adherence with brick was reduced when geo-polymeric mortars were used. However, best results were obtained by geo-polymeric mortars with respect to cement ones for vapour permeability, capillarity water absorption, elastic modulus and resistance to salt crystallization.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/152120 Collegamento a IRIS

2014
Comparison of lightweight mortars manufactured with virgin or recycled polystyrene
Young Researchers' Forum II: Construction Materials
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra; DI PERNA, Costanzo; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: The Institute of Concrete Technology
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: In recent years, energy saving in buildings prescribes limits on thermal transmittance of opaque structures that can be achieved with the use of materials with low thermal conductivities. Mortars and concretes lightened with polystyrene pearls belong to this class. In this work, the performance of lightweight mortars manufactured with virgin polystyrene is compared with that of mortars manufactured with recycled granules of polystyrene at the same volume dosage. Six mortar mixtures with water/cement = 0.55 by replacing the 33% - 66% - 100% of sand volume with virgin or recycled polystyrene are manufactured. The obtained results show that, at the same volume dosage, the replacing of virgin polystyrene with recycled one improves the mechanical performance of mortars without significant variation in the capillary water absorption and water vapour permeability. The use of recycled polystyrene increases the equivalent thermal conductivity of mortars that can be compensated with a higher dosage of polystyrene. The use of recycled polystyrene allows a significant economical savings during the production phase of mortars and a certain insulation degree.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/152119 Collegamento a IRIS

2014
Malte geopolimeriche e cementizie a pari classe di resistenza confrontate anche in presenza di armature
Atti del 12° Convegno Nazionale AIMAT
Autore/i: Mobili, Alessandra; Giosue', Chiara; Mancini, Roberto; Bellezze, Tiziano; Tittarelli, Francesca
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Il crescente interesse nella ricerca di materiali più sostenibili ha portato allo studio di malte geopolimeriche come sostitute delle tradizionali malte a base di cemento Portland. La ricerca si è sviluppata confrontando il comportamento di malte cementizie e geopolimeriche a parità di classe di resistenza meccanica (R1 ≥ 10MPa, R2 ≥ 15MPa and R3 ≥ 25MPa). In particolare sono state confezionate tre malte geopolimeriche a base di cenere volante, con rapporto sabbia/cenere di 2.7:1 in peso, e una soluzione di silicato di sodio/idrossido di potassio 1:1 (in peso) a differente concentrazione. Le rispettive malte cementizie sono state confezionate con cemento Portland e calce idraulica come leganti e rapporto sabbia/legante di 3:1 in peso. Le sei miscele sono state confrontate valutando il comportamento a corrosione di possibili armature in acciaio nero e in acciaio zincato durante il primo mese dopo il getto. I risultati hanno evidenziato che l’alta alcalinità delle miscele geopolimeriche incrementa la corrosione di barre in acciaio zincato soltanto durante i primi giorni di stagionatura, mentre le armature in acciaio nero hanno avuto un comportamento simile a quelle immerse nelle matrici cementizie.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/194504 Collegamento a IRIS

2014
Finiture innovative per ambienti indoor con proprietà adsorbenti di inquinanti aereodispersi
Atti del 12° Convegno Nazionale AIMAT
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra; Marcellini, Mirco; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Tittarelli, Francesca
Editore: AIMAT
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: Le normative sull’efficienza e le prestazioni energetiche degli edifici sono sempre più stringenti. Tali norme comportano la progettazione e realizzazione di costruzioni isolate e sigillate, con conseguenti minor ricambi d’aria. E’ quindi maggiore il rischio di avere ambienti interni insalubri a causa del ristagno di umidità e aumento della concentrazione di inquinanti indoor. Oltre l’utilizzo di sistemi attivi convenzionali, malte e finiture interne possono dare un contributo rilevante all’aumento della qualità dell’aria. In questo studio sei differenti miscele sono state preparate utilizzando calce idraulica e cemento. Per quanto riguarda gli aggregati si è provveduto a sostituire la sabbia con materiali dall’elevata superficie specifica, quali perlite e zeolite. Sono state testate e messe a confronto le proprietà meccaniche e morfologiche, l’assorbimento d’acqua per capillarità, l’efficienza di rimozione di Composti Organici Volatili (COV) e la capacità delle finiture di funzionare come tampone igroscopico. I risultati hanno evidenziato che tutte le malte cementizie hanno, come ben noto, resistenze meccaniche maggiori rispetto a quelle confezionate con calce idraulica. Il legante è influente anche nei riguardi dell’assorbimento d’acqua per capillarità e come regolatore di umidità. Le malte preparate con zeolite risultano essere il migliore tampone igroscopico e hanno un’elevata efficienza di rimozione di COV: dopo trenta minuti di esposizione all’inquinante usato come tracciante non è stata rilevata saturazione.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/194505 Collegamento a IRIS

2014
Assessment of air pollutant sources in the deposit on monuments by multivariate analysis
SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
Autore/i: Izabela, Ozga; Nadia, Ghedini; Giosue', Chiara; Cristina, Sabbioni; Tittarelli, Francesca; Alessandra, Bonazza
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: A proper recognition of the pollutant sources in atmospheric deposit is a key problem for any action aiming at reducing their emission, being this an important issue with implications both on human health safeguard and on the cultural heritage conservation in urban sites. Thiswork presents the results of a statistical approach application for the identification of pollutant sources in deposits and damage layers onmonuments located in different European sites: Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence (Italy), Cologne Cathedral, Cologne (Germany), Ancient ramparts, Salè (Morocco), National Museum, Cracow (Poland) and National Gallery, Oslo (Norway). For this aim, the surface damage layers on monuments and historical buildings of the selected sites were collected and analyzed, in terms of ionic and elemental composition, through application of ion chromatography and induced coupled plasma-opticalemission spectroscopy. The achieved results were processed bymultivariate analyses such as correlation matrix and principal component analysis in order to identify the possible origin of pollutants affecting the state of conservation of the monuments. This allowed us to assume that in all case studies the traffic emission is the main pollutant source. In the case of Ancient ramparts, Salè (Morocco), and National Gallery, Oslo (Norway), the surfaces are also under influence of marine aerosols. Moreover, concerning the Cologne Cathedral, the strong impact of the pollutants emitted by railway station was also revealed.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/172509 Collegamento a IRIS

2013
Sustainable and Durable No-fines Concrete for Vertical Applications
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; Mobili, Alessandra; Giosue', Chiara; Ruello, Maria Letizia
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: No-fines concretes with compressive strength in the range 7-30 MPa at 28 days of curing were optimized by changing the water-cement ratio from 0.41 to 0.34 and the aggregate-cement ratio from 8 to 4. Some mixtures were also repeated with the addition of a hydrophobic admixture and prepared by fully replacing the ordinary aggregate with recycled aggregate to evaluate durability effects. High susceptibility to carbonation was observed for all the no-fines mixes studied. The use of recycled aggregate increases capillary water absorption (about 50%); however, the related decrease in durability could be easily counteracted with the use of a hydrophobic admixture.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/143877 Collegamento a IRIS

2013
Characterization of black crust layers of different sites in Europe and North Africa
IX convegno nazionale sulla scienza e tecnologia dei materiali
Autore/i: Giosue', Chiara; Izabela, Ozga; Tittarelli, Francesca; Alessandra, Bonazza
Editore: INSTM
Luogo di pubblicazione: Firenze
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Abstract: The EC TeACH project (Technologies and tools to prioritize assessment and diagnosis of air pollution impact on immovable and movable cultural heritage) sets out to understand the different types of deterioration due to pollution impact on cultural heritage in different European and North Africa sites. The characterization of damage layers was focused on ions by chromatography (IC) and elemental composition by coupled plasma-optical emission and mass spectrometer (ICP-OES, ICP-MS). The obtained data were analyzed applying Pearson’s correlation to understand the origin of the ions and elements detected in the black crusts. In all cases, SOx and NOx have the priority role in damage layer formation. The impact in surface deterioration of local pollutant sources, e.g. past restoration treatments in Florence Cathedral, coal combustion and emission from railway transport in case of Cologne Cathedral, marine aerosol deposition, in the cases of the coastal sites of Salè and Oslo, are also observed.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/108063 Collegamento a IRIS

2013
Innovative materials for building envelopes to improve passively indoor comfort and health
4° Forum Italiano per l'Ambient Assisted Living
Autore/i: Tittarelli, Francesca; Giosue', Chiara; Ruello, Maria Letizia
Classificazione: 4 Contributo in Atti di Convegno (Proceeding)
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/128271 Collegamento a IRIS

2013
Effect of two different sources and washing treatment on the properties of UFS by-products for mortar and concrete production
CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
Autore/i: Monosi, Saveria; Tittarelli, Francesca; Giosue', Chiara; Ruello, Maria Letizia
Classificazione: 1 Contributo su Rivista
Abstract: The possibility of reusing two types of Used Foundry Sands (UFSs), coming from two different processing stages of the same foundry, in the production of mortars and concretes for structural applications was investigated. The UFSs were physically and chemically characterized and then added to mortars and concretes as fine aggregate replacement at increasing dosages (ranging from 0 % to 30 % by weight). Different water-cement ratios as well as the addition of previously washed UFSs were also considered. The resulting washing waters were used to manufacture cement pastes in order to investigate the effect of soluble UFSs ions on the hydration kinetics of cement. Leaching tests in de-ionized water were realized in order to assess the environmental impact of the final materials. The main results show that UFSs properties are very dependent on their source, even in the same foundry. The reduction in compressive strength is greater when lower w/c ratio are adopted. High content of soluble alkaline ions in UFSs can induce an accelerating effect in cement hydration. However, if previously washed UFSs is employed, the accelerating effect at shorter curing time is eliminated and the reduction in mechanical performance at longer curing time partially recovered. The release in de-ionized water satisfies the enforced standard for all the specimens. At these percentages of use, mortars and concrete for structural applications can still be manufactured and the use in construction is beneficial over disposal.
Scheda della pubblicazione: https://iris.univpm.it/handle/11566/87483 Collegamento a IRIS




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